Book/Printed Material Image 26 of Persian Gulf states : country studies
because of the mountains that cut off the interior from the
coast, Oman has the most distinctive culture of the five states.
In general, the gulf has served as a major facilitator of trade
and culture. The ancient civilization of Dilmun, for example,
in present-day Bahrain existed as early as the fourth millen-
The Persian Gulf, however, also constitutes a ready channel
for foreign conquerors. In addition to Britain, over the centu-
ries the gulf states have known such rulers as the Greeks,
Parthians, Sassanians, Iranians, and Portuguese. When
England 's influence first came to the area in 1622, the Safavid
shah of Iran sought England 's aid in driving the Portuguese
out of the gulf.
Britain did not play a major role, however, until the early
nineteenth century. At that time, attacks on British shipping by
the Al Qasimi of the present-day UAE became so serious that
Britain asked the assistance of the ruler of Oman in ending the
attacks. In consequence, Britain in 1820 initiated treaties or
truces with the various rulers of the area, giving rise to the term
The boundaries of the Persian Gulf states were considered
relatively unimportant until the discovery of oil in Bahrain in
1932 caused other gulf countries to define their geographic
limits. Britain 's 1968 announcement that in 1971 it would aban-
don its protectorate commitments east of the Suez Canal accel-
erated the independence of the states. Oman had maintained
its independence in principle since 1650. Kuwait, with the most
advanced institutions — primarily because of its oil wealth — had
declared its independence in 1961. Bahrain, Qatar, and the
UAE followed suit in 1971. In the face of the Iranian Revolu-
tion of 1979, all of the Persian Gulf states experienced fears for
their security. These apprehensions led to their formation,
together with Saudi Arabia, of the Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC) in May 1981.
Of all the gulf states, Kuwait clearly has the greatest security
concerns. By early 1994, Kuwait largely had succeeded in
rebuilding its damaged infrastructure and oil industry facilities
ravaged by Iraq in the course of its August 2, 1990, invasion and
subsequent scorched-earth policy concerning Kuwait 's oil wells.
By June 1993, Kuwait had increased its oil production to such
an extent that it refused the Organization of the Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC) quota of 1.8 million barrels per
About this Item
- Persian Gulf states : country studies
- Contributor Names
- Metz, Helen Chapin, 1928-
- Library of Congress. Federal Research Division.
- Created / Published
- Washington, D.C. : Federal Research Division, Library of Congress : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1994.
- Historical setting. -- Kuwait. -- Bahrain. -- Qatar. -- United Arab Emirates. -- Oman. -- Regional and national security considerations.
- Subject Headings
- - Persian Gulf States
- - "Research completed January 1993."
- - Supersedes the 1984 ed. of Persian Gulf states : country studies, edited by Richard F. Nyrop.
- - Includes bibliographical references (p. 417-433) and index.
- - Also available in digital form.
- 472 p. : ill., maps, charts ; 25 cm.
- Call Number/Physical Location
- DS247.A13 P47 1994
- Library of Congress Control Number
- Online Format
- online text
- "Research completed January 1993." Supersedes the 1984 ed. of Persian Gulf states : country studies, edited by Richard F. Nyrop. Includes bibliographical references (p. 417-433) and index. Also available in digital form.
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Chicago citation style:
Metz, Helen Chapin, and Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. Persian Gulf states: country studies. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1994. Pdf. https://www.loc.gov/item/93046476/.
APA citation style:
Metz, H. C. & Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. (1994) Persian Gulf states: country studies. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/93046476/.
MLA citation style:
Metz, Helen Chapin, and Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. Persian Gulf states: country studies. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1994. Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/93046476/>.