Book/Printed Material Image 145 of Syria : a country study

About this Item

The Economyeconomy to promote greater private sector development than a dismantling of government controls and ownership. As a result of these measures, the private sector dominated agriculture and retail trade and was important in light industry — particularly fabrics and clothing — and construction, transportation, and tourist facili- ties.Cotton, the country 's most important export before 1974, pro- vided an extreme example of government involvement in the economy. Areas put into cotton cultivation were controlled by government licensing of individual farmers. A government bank supplied the credit, most of which went to cotton farmers; much of the credit was in kind, and the bank would purchase, store, and distribute the approved seeds, fertilizers, and other items. Govern- ment organizations purchased and graded the cotton, operated the gins and spinning mills, and marketed the products internally and abroad. The government established the price for cotton at all stages and subsidized prices for such inputs as credits, seeds, fertilizers, and fuel to run the irrigation pumps.The effect on Syria 's economy of the socialist measures of the 1960s was significant. First, there was a substantial exodus of trained personnel and capital from the private sector, a trend that con- tinued in the 1970s, although the exodus was of a smaller magni- tude and occurred for different reasons (see Industry, this ch.). The other major consequence was a rapid expansion of government responsibilities, even though the government had few trained peo- ple, limited funds, and inadequate organization and procedures. The political instability of the 1960s and the small number of trained people in the country further hampered development of effective organizations. Government services, including defense, became the main growth sector of the economy in the 1960s as people were added to the payroll, but effective expansion was slow.In the mid-1980s, observers characterized the government and its activities as inefficient and excessively bureaucratic. Much of the criticism was caused by the continuing shortage of trained and competent officials. Part of the criticism reflected continuing defi- ciencies in organizations and practices. Government organizations were still trying to catch up with the huge additional responsibili- ties that had been imposed on inexperienced government person- nel. By 1986 budgetary procedures and financial controls had steadily improved, but they were not as good as the situation required or as officials desired. Proposals for evaluations and implementation of projects were deficient, but progress had been made, and the government sought advice and help from outside experts for more improvements.117

About this Item

Title
Syria : a country study
Contributor Names
Collelo, Thomas, 1948-
Library of Congress. Federal Research Division.
Created / Published
Washington, D.C. : Federal Research Division, Library of Congress : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1988.
Subject Headings
-  Syria
Notes
-  "Research completed April 1987."
-  Supersedes the 1978 ed. of Syria : a country study, edited by Richard F. Nyrop and prepared by Foreign Area Studies, American University.
-  Includes bibliographical references (p. 295-315) and index.
-  Also available in digital form.
-  1988 ed. actually 4th ed., per tel. call to FRD/LC 1-6-93; 1979 ed. is the 3rd ed. ta01 1-6-93
Medium
xxiv, 334 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Call Number/Physical Location
DS93 .S953 1988
Library of Congress Control Number
87600488
Language
English
Online Format
image
online text
pdf
Description
"Research completed April 1987." Supersedes the 1978 ed. of Syria : a country study, edited by Richard F. Nyrop and prepared by Foreign Area Studies, American University. Includes bibliographical references (p. 295-315) and index. Also available in digital form. 1988 ed. actually 4th ed., per tel. call to FRD/LC 1-6-93; 1979 ed. is the 3rd ed. ta01 1-6-93
LCCN Permalink
https://lccn.loc.gov/87600488
Additional Metadata Formats
MARCXML Record
MODS Record
Dublin Core Record
IIIF Presentation Manifest
Manifest (JSON/LD)

Rights & Access

The Library of Congress is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17, U.S.C.) or other restrictions in the material in this collection, except as noted below. Users should keep in mind that the Library of Congress is providing access to these materials strictly for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item(s).

Several of the books in the series contain photographs that have been copyrighted. The captions for these photographs clearly indicate the protected status of the images. All other text and graphics are in the public domain. Users and/or publishers requiring specific written confirmation for the record should direct inquiries to frds@loc.gov.  

Credit line

Sample format for citing a Country Study:

Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. Turkey:  A Country Study. Washington, DC: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996.

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Collelo, Thomas, and Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. Syria: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1988. Pdf. https://www.loc.gov/item/87600488/.

APA citation style:

Collelo, T. & Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. (1988) Syria: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/87600488/.

MLA citation style:

Collelo, Thomas, and Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. Syria: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1988. Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/87600488/>.

More Books/Printed Material like this