Book/Printed Material Image 164 of Syria : a country study

About this Item

Syria: A Country Studyreduced, under a fixed schedule, the share of crops taken by land- lords. It also authorized agricultural laborers to organize unions and established commissions to review and fix minimum wages for agricultural workers.However, by the time Syria withdrew from the merger with Egypt in 1961, opposition from large landowners, administrative difficul- ties, and severe crop failures during the prolonged 1958-61 drought had effectively curtailed movement toward land reform. The con- servative regime in power from 1961 until March 1963 blocked implementation of the land reform program in practice by enact- ing a number of amendments to the original law that substantially raised the ceilings on ownership and opened loopholes.Shortly after the Baath Party seized power in March 1963, Decree Law 88 of 1963 was promulgated, canceling the actions of the previ- ous regime and reinstating the original agrarian reform laws with important modifications. One of the most significant modifications was lowering the limit on the size of holdings and providing flexi- bility in accordance with the productivity of the land. The new ceil- ings on landownership were set at between 15 and 55 hectares on irrigated land and between 80 and 300 hectares on rain-fed land, depending on the area and rainfall. Land in excess of the ceilings was to be expropriated within five years. The compensation pay- able to the former owners was fixed at 10 times the average 3-year rental value of the expropriated land, plus interest on the principal at the rate of 1.5 percent for 40 years.The expropriated land was to be redistributed to tenants, land- less farmers, and farm laborers in holdings of up to a maximum of eight hectares of irrigated land or thirty to forty-five hectares of rain-fed land per family. Beneficiaries of the redistribution pro- gram were required to form state-supervised cooperatives. The 1963 law reduced the price of redistributed land to the beneficiaries to the equivalent of one-fourth of the compensation for expropria- tion. The land recipients paid this amount in equal installments to their cooperatives over a twenty-year period to finance such cooperative activities as development, dispensaries, schools, and cultural centers.By 1975 (the latest available data in early 1987) 1.4 million hect- ares (68,000 hectares of irrigated land) had been expropriated, primarily in the early years of the program. Distribution moved much more slowly. By 1975, redistributed land had amounted to 466,000 hectares (61,000 hectares of irrigated land) and undistrib- uted land to 351,000 hectares. In addition, there were 254,000 hec- tares of land that had been allocated to cooperatives, ministries, and other organizations and 330,000 hectares that were categorized as136

About this Item

Title
Syria : a country study
Contributor Names
Collelo, Thomas, 1948-
Library of Congress. Federal Research Division.
Created / Published
Washington, D.C. : Federal Research Division, Library of Congress : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1988.
Subject Headings
-  Syria
Notes
-  "Research completed April 1987."
-  Supersedes the 1978 ed. of Syria : a country study, edited by Richard F. Nyrop and prepared by Foreign Area Studies, American University.
-  Includes bibliographical references (p. 295-315) and index.
-  Also available in digital form.
-  1988 ed. actually 4th ed., per tel. call to FRD/LC 1-6-93; 1979 ed. is the 3rd ed. ta01 1-6-93
Medium
xxiv, 334 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Call Number/Physical Location
DS93 .S953 1988
Library of Congress Control Number
87600488
Language
English
Online Format
image
online text
pdf
Description
"Research completed April 1987." Supersedes the 1978 ed. of Syria : a country study, edited by Richard F. Nyrop and prepared by Foreign Area Studies, American University. Includes bibliographical references (p. 295-315) and index. Also available in digital form. 1988 ed. actually 4th ed., per tel. call to FRD/LC 1-6-93; 1979 ed. is the 3rd ed. ta01 1-6-93
LCCN Permalink
https://lccn.loc.gov/87600488
Additional Metadata Formats
MARCXML Record
MODS Record
Dublin Core Record
IIIF Presentation Manifest
Manifest (JSON/LD)

Rights & Access

The Library of Congress is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17, U.S.C.) or other restrictions in the material in this collection, except as noted below. Users should keep in mind that the Library of Congress is providing access to these materials strictly for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item(s).

Several of the books in the series contain photographs that have been copyrighted. The captions for these photographs clearly indicate the protected status of the images. All other text and graphics are in the public domain. Users and/or publishers requiring specific written confirmation for the record should direct inquiries to frds@loc.gov.  

Credit line

Sample format for citing a Country Study:

Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. Turkey:  A Country Study. Washington, DC: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996.

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Collelo, Thomas, and Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. Syria: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1988. Pdf. https://www.loc.gov/item/87600488/.

APA citation style:

Collelo, T. & Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. (1988) Syria: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/87600488/.

MLA citation style:

Collelo, Thomas, and Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. Syria: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1988. Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/87600488/>.

More Books/Printed Material like this