Manuscript/Mixed Material Direct contact among galactic civilizations by relativistic interstellar spaceflight : draft
About this Item
- Direct contact among galactic civilizations by relativistic interstellar spaceflight : draft
- Contributor Names
- Sagan, Carl (Author)
- Created / Published
- Subject Headings
- - Space travel
- - Interplanetary voyages
- - Extraterrestrial life
- - Life on other planets
- - Habitable planets
- - Drake, Frank D
- - Drake equation
- - Relativity (Physics)
- - Carl Sagan
- - Manuscripts
- - A draft of Sagan's paper, "Direct contact among galactic civilizations by relativistic interstellar spaceflight." The paper explores models for the distribution of technical civilizations in the galaxy. Using Frank D. Drake's equation to suggest that 0.001 percent of stars in the sky have a planet on them on which an advanced civilization resides. Sagan suggests the nearest such advanced civilization is several hundred light years away from earth. From there, Sagan explores the feasibility of interstellar spaceflight as a means for traversing such distances. The paper ends in consideration of the possibility of extraterrestrial contact with Earth in the past. The paper was initially presented at a meeting of the American Rocket Society in November of 1962 and subsequently submitted to Planetary and Space Science in December of 1962 and published in 1963.
- Dimensions in inches: 8 1/2 x 5 (1 page)
- Source Collection
- The Seth MacFarlane Collection of the Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan Archive
- Manuscript Division
- Online Format
- IIIF Presentation Manifest
- Manifest (JSON/LD)
The Library of Congress has digitized various items from numerous Library of Congress collections to create the online collection Finding our Place in the Cosmos: From Galileo to Sagan and Beyond. As a result, the individual collection items may have varying rights and access restrictions. Whenever possible, the Library of Congress provides factual information about copyright owners and related matters in the catalog records, finding aids and other texts that accompany collections. For further information with respect to a specific collection item, see the associated rights & access statement on the individualized web page displaying that specific collection item.
As a publicly supported institution, the Library generally does not own rights in its collections. Therefore, it does not charge permission fees for use of such material and generally does not grant or deny permission to publish or otherwise distribute material in its collections. Permission and possible fees may be required from the copyright owner independently of the Library. It is the researcher's obligation to determine and satisfy copyright or other use restrictions when publishing or otherwise distributing materials found in the Library's collections. Transmission or reproduction of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use requires the written permission of the copyright owners. Researchers must make their own assessments of rights in light of their intended use.
If you have any more information about an item you've seen on our website or if you are the copyright owner and believe our website has not properly attributed your work to you or has used it without permission, we want to hear from you. Please contact [email protected] with your contact information and a link to the relevant content.
Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.
Chicago citation style:
Sagan, Carl. Direct Contact Among Galactic Civilizations by Relativistic Interstellar Spaceflight: Draft. to 1962, 1960. Manuscript/Mixed Material. https://www.loc.gov/item/cosmos000012/.
APA citation style:
Sagan, C. (1960) Direct Contact Among Galactic Civilizations by Relativistic Interstellar Spaceflight: Draft. to 1962. [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/cosmos000012/.
MLA citation style:
Sagan, Carl. Direct Contact Among Galactic Civilizations by Relativistic Interstellar Spaceflight: Draft. to 1962, 1960. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/cosmos000012/>.