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Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles, California

Sports Marketing

Simply speaking, sports marketing focuses on the promotion of sporting events, teams, and athletes but it also includes the promotion of products and services through sporting events, teams, and athletes. Advertisers have long advertised at sporting events – think of all of the signs seen at baseball games – because it was an important way to generate more money. Over time the importance of advertising grew as the sports "industry" grew. Cable television, most importantly the channel ESPN which was established in 1979, was the first step. Other more recent channels like the Golf Channel and others have followed. As a result, there has been an increase in the viewing of sports of all types.

BERA - Business & Economics Research Advisor - A Quarterly Guide to Business & Economics Topics

Issue 3/4: Summer 2005
Updated December 2016

The Sports Industry

Table of Contents

General Guides and E-Resources
Sports Marketing    New section
Building & Managing Sports Venues    New section

Caption (left):
Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles, California
Highsmith, Carol M., photographer, 2012
(Library of Congress)
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-highsm-21982

The increasing popularity of sports has meant an increase in the visibility of teams and most importantly, its athletes. This has meant advertisers have found it increasingly valuable to team up with sports stars - like Nike signing Michael Jordan – to make their brand even more visible. One person closely associated with the history and development of sports marketing was Mark McCormack - founder and chairman of International Management Group (now IMG). McCormack was a lawyer who represented a number of athletes and as such, was able to secure endorsement deals for many of his clients including one of his first sports clients - pro golfer Arnie Palmer. Under McCormack's guidance Palmer was one of the first athletes to understand the branding game for athletes, and he even went so far as to establish Arnold Palmer Enterprises.

When doing research there are different strategies to gather information in order to develop a complete picture. Look for information that sheds light on the relationship between fans and their teams – more of the sport consumer behavior (SCB). Also look at specific examples of what athletes and teams are branding. Keep in mind that information may reside in places outside of sports and sports marketing literature because broadcasting, general advertising/marketing, social media, digital platforms, ticket sales, and community relations have their own literature where the topic is also discussed.

Center for Sports Leadership – Virginia Commonwealth University External Link

Two of the professors, Dwyer and Greenhalgh have written extensively on sports marketing.

DeGaris, Larry. Sports Marketing: A Practical Approach. London ; New York, NY : Routledge, 2015.
LC Call Number: GV716 .D42 2015
LC Catalog Record: 2014032424

This title is geared toward sports marketing students and prospective sports marketers. It looks at: sports markets; fan development; brand management; ticket sales; media and media audiences; sponsorship; etc.

Dwyer, Brendan, Greenhalgh, Gregory P., & LeCrom, Carrie W. "Exploring Fan Behavior: Developing a Scale to Measure Sport eFANgelism". Journal of Sport Management. 2 (9): 642-656.

Encyclopedia of Sports Management and Marketing / general editors, Linda E. Swayne, Mark Dodds. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, Inc, c2011.
LC Call Number: GV713 .E53 2011
LC Catalog Record: 2011019185

This is a four volume set with topics listed alphabetically. Each topic has a written explanation with additional reading.

Foster, George. Sports Business Management: Decision Making Around the Globe. New York, NY : Routledge, 2016.
LC Call Number: GV713 .F624 2016
LC Catalog Record: 2015026666
Companion web page External Link

This title is broken down into 3 parts: Part I: Introduction to Sports Business Management; Part 2 Stakeholders; Part 3 Applications (sponsorship, marketing, ticket pricing, revenue streams, broadcasting etc.). There is also a companion web page for those that purchase the print title.

Funk, Daniel C., & James, Jeff. "The psychological continuum model: A conceptual framework for understanding an individual's psychological connection to sport." Sport Management Review. 4 (2): 119-150.

Funk Daniel, Lock Daniel, Karg Adam, Pritchard Mark. "Sport Consumer Behavior Research: Improving Our Game". Journal Of Sport Management. March 2016;30(2):113-116.

Gelles, David. "Golf Great Arnold Palmer Was Also a Pioneering Pitchman." New York Times, September 26, 2016. External Link

Greenhalgh, Gregory P., & Greenwell, T. Christopher. "Professional niche sports sponsorship: An investigation of sponsorship selection criteria". International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. 14 (2): 2-19.

Hardy, Stephen, Norman, Brian and Sceery, Sarah. (2012) "Toward a history of sport branding", Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, 4(4), pp. 482-509.

IMR Publication External Link

Publisher of the International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship and reports like "Driving Business Through Sport" (editions 1 & 2), "European Sports Marketing Data" and others.

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. Bingley : Emerald Group
LC Catalog Record

This title is published quarterly and its audience is primarily academic and industry experts. It includes research, case studies, and interviews on all aspects of sports marketing from consumers to teams as well as types of marketing and sponsorship and branding. It is also available full-text in the Emerald Insight database.

International Journal of Sport Psychology: Official Journal of the International Society of Sports Psychology. Rome : Pozzi
LC Call Number: GV706.4 .I58
LC Catalog Record: 82646974
Journal's website External Link

The journal include empirical and theoretical pieces related to psychology in sports, sport pedagogy, exercise and sport performance.

Mason, Daniel S. "What is the sports product and who buys it? The marketing of professional sports leagues". European Journal of Marketing. 33 (3-4): 402-419.

McCormack, Mark H. Arnie, the Evolution of a Legend. New York, Simon and Schuster [1967]
LC Call Number: GV964.P3 M3
LC Catalog Record: 67022939

This book was written about a man that became the best, earliest example of the marketing of athletes written by the man who orchestrated it all.

Mullin, Bernard James. Sport Marketing. Fourth edition. Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics, [2014]
LC Call Number: GV716 .M85 2014
LC Catalog Record: 2013031098

This is a textbook for students and includes contributions from industry professionals. Chapters cover: an overview of the field of sport marketing; how to research and study the behaviors of sport consumers; information on the five Ps of sport marketing with sections on branding, sales and service, engagement and activation, community relations, and social media; and the legal issues and the future of sport marketing.

Nicholson, Matthew. Sport and the Media: Managing the Nexus. Second edition. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York : Routledge, 2015.
LC Call Number: GV742 .N54 2015
LC Catalog Record: 2014048552

This textbook is designed mostly for first and second year university students studying sport management and sport studies. It includes analysis of the sport media industry as well as a guide to practical sport media management skills; includes some essential information on the commercial relationships between key media and sport organizations. Sections include: sport media foundations; sport media landscapes; sport media strategies; and sport media futures.

Routledge Handbook of Sports Marketing. edited by Simon Chadwick, Nicolas Chanavat and Michel Desbordes. London ; New York : Routledge, 2016.
LC Call Number: GV716 .R697 2016
LC Catalog Record: 2015020127
Description and Table of Contents External Link

There are 6 sections with individual chapters covering: brands; sponsorship; ambush marketing; customers, fans and spectators; media; and marketing, ethics and development.

Sport Marketing Association External Link

The association doesn't have much on its website but there are a few interviews that were published in the Sports Marketing Quarterly that are available in full-text in the View from the Field section.

Sport Marketing Quarterly: SMQ. Morgantown, WV : Fitness Information Technology, Inc., c1992-
LC Call Number: GV716 .S6355
LC Catalog Record: 93664154
Journal's website External Link

This publication is published in March, June, September, December for both professionals and academics.

Stewart, Bob, Smith, Aaron C. T., & Nicholson, Matthew. "Sport consumer typologies: A critical review." Sport Marketing Quarterly. 12 (4): 206-216.

Supovitz, Frank. The Sports Event Management and Marketing Playbook. Second edition. Hoboken, N.J. : J. Wiley & Sons, [2014]
LC Call Number: GV716 .S86 2012
LC Catalog Record: 2013001155
Table of Contents External Link

This is a practical look at how to market sports events and market teams. It includes a number of Appendix like Event Expense BudgetWorksheet, Sample Sponsorship Agreement, and Sample Facility Event License Agreement.

Wann, Daniel L., Grieve, Frederick, Zapalac, Ryan K., & Pease, Dale G. (2008). "Motivational profiles of sport fans of different sports." Sport Marketing Quarterly. 17 (1): 6-19.

Wann, Daniel L., & Branscombe, Nyla R. (1993). "Sports fans: Measuring degree of identification with their team." International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2 (4): 1-17.

Library of Congress Catalog Searches

Additional works on the business of football in the Library of Congress may be identified by searching the Online Catalog under appropriate Library of Congress subject headings. Choose the topics you wish to search from the following list of Library of Congress subject headings to link directly to the Catalog and automatically execute a search for the subject selected. Please be aware that during periods of heavy use you may encounter delays in accessing the catalog. For assistance in locating the many other subject headings which relate to football as a business, please consult a reference librarian.

Last Updated: 11/18/2016

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