Skip Navigation Links and Jump to Page Content  The Library of Congress >> Researchers
Business Reference Services (Science, Technology, and Business Division)
  Home >> Guides >> BERA >> Issue 3/4

Aerial, Camden Yards Stadium, Baltimore, Maryland

Building & Managing Sports Venues

Financing & Building
Naming rights          Managing
LC Catalog Searches

Financing & Building

Public financing of sports stadiums often inspires much heated discussion. This section is devoted to just some of the more general and academic material.
Each city, deal, and situation has its own issues that may provide additional information that may be important in looking at the larger topic. So beyond the more general or academic discussion, there are discussions and literature related to specific projects that should be researched.

BERA - Business & Economics Research Advisor - A Quarterly Guide to Business & Economics Topics

Issue 3/4: Summer 2005
Updated December 2016

The Sports Industry

Table of Contents

Introduction
General Guides and E-Resources
Baseball
Basketball
Football
Golf
Soccer
Tennis
Sports Marketing   New section
Building & Managing Sports Venues    New section

Caption (left):
Aerial, Camden Yards Stadium, Baltimore, Maryland, May 11, 2006
Highsmith, Carol M., photographer
(Library of Congress)
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-highsm-04854

Because planning and building of a stadium is a long process and an important local interest story, it will be covered by local newspapers, business magazine, and other news sources. An example of local interest material can be found in the bibliography Financing Professional Sports Facilities External Link which is a list of materials compiled by staff at the Minnesota Legislative Reference Library for Minnesota legislators to provide an introduction to the topic with sources specific to Minnesota. Just as important is the planning material produced by local/state government agencies. If they aren't available electronically, looking for news stories may be one of the best ways to find out about who was saying what and for some of the details. One way to ferret out information is to know, and search on, the team names and the stadium names.

Alexander, Donald L. and William Kern. "The Economic Determinants of Professional Sports Franchise Values." Journal of Sports Economics 5, 51-66.

Baade, Robert A. "Stadiums, Professional Sports, and Economic Development: Assessing the Reality," The Heartland Institute, Heartland Policy Study No. 62 (April 4, 1994).
https://www.heartland.org/ External Link

Baade, Robert A. and Victor A. Matheson. "Financing Professional Sports Facilities' Working Paper Series, Paper No. 11-02, January 2011
http://college.holycross.edu/RePEc/spe/MathesonBaade_FinancingSports.pdf External Link

Coates, Dennis and B.R. Humphreys. "The Growth Effects of Sport Franchises, Stadia, and Arenas." Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, 1999. 18(4): p. 624.

Coates, Dennis and Brad R. Humphreys. 2008. "Do Economists Reach a Conclusion for Sports Franchises, Stadiums, and Mega-Events?" Econ Journal Watch 5(3): 294-315

Coates, Dennis and Brad R. Humphreys. "Novelty Effects of New Facilities on Attendance at Professional Sporting Events," Contemporary Economic Policy. Volume 23, number 3: p. 436. July 2005.
LC Call Number: HD72 .C66
LC Catalog Record: 94640997

Also available online to patrons onsite through several subscription databases including Gale (General Onefile), ProQuest, and Wilson OmniFile Full Text Mega Edition.

Delaney, K.J. and R. Eckstein. Public Dollars, Private Stadiums: The Battle Over Building Sports Stadiums. New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, c2003.
LC Call Number: GV413 .D45 2003 OVERFLOWJ34
LC Catalog Record: 2003005673

This book looks at some of the battles over publicly financed stadiums.

Financing Professional Sports Facilities. Done by the Minnesota Legislative Reference Library
https://www.leg.state.mn.us/lrl/issues/issues?issue=sports External Link

This site has a good selection of citations that are a bit older so can be good for an historical perspective but also includes some that are specific to Minnesota.

Garofalo, Pat and Travis Waldron. "If You Build It, They Might Not Come: The Risky Economics of Sports Stadiums," Atlantic Monthly September 2012.
http://www.theatlantic.com/...they-might-not-come-the-risky-economics-of-sports-stadiums/260900/ External Link

Gilroy, Leonard and Samuel Staley. "Stadium Doesn't Guarantee Economic Gains," Reason, July 1, 2007
http://reason.org/news/show/stadium-doesnt-guarantee-econo External Link

Johns, Bruce K., Groothuis, Peter A. & Whitehead John C. "The Value of Public Goods Generated by a Major League Sports Team: The CVM Approach". Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 2 no. 1, February 2001, pp. 6-21.

This is an analysis to measure the value of public goods generated by a professional sports team specifically the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League.

Journal of Facility Planning, Design, and Management.
http://js.sagamorepub.com/jfpdm External Link

Began in 2013, the purpose of this journal is to provide a forum for analyzing the management and organization of the delivery of facility planning and design for the fitness, physical activity, recreation, and sport to the profession. Articles from this journal can be found in ABI-Inform.

Komisarchik, Mayya and Aju J. Fenn. "Trends in Stadium and Arena Construction, 1995-2016," September 2016.
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2844807 External Link

A look at the capacity, cost, public subsidy, and accompanying legislative characteristics of the 50 stadiums and arenas opened between 1995 and 2005 that included 12 baseball stadiums, five basketball arenas, ten hockey arenas, eight dual use NBA/NHL venues, and 16 football fields.

Long, Judith Grant. "The Real Cost of Public Funding for Major League Sports Facilities," Journal of Sports Economics May 2005 vol. 6 no. 2 119-143.

Long, Judith Grant. Public/Private Partnerships for Major League Sports Facilities. New York : Routledge, 2012.
LC Call Number: GV401 .L66 2012
LC Catalog Record: 2012008050

Noll, Roger G., and Andrew Zimbalist, eds. Sports, Jobs and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums. Washington D.C. : Brookings Institution Press, c1997.
LC Call Number: GV716 .S647 1997
LC Catalog Record: 97033764

This looks at the real economic impact of stadiums and includes a few case studies.

Noll, Roger G., and Andrew Zimbalist. "Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: Are New Stadiums Worth the Cost?" The Brookings Review (Summer 1997b), pp. 35-39.

Rafool, Mandy. Playing the Stadium Game: Financing Professional Sports Facilities in the '90s. Denver, Colo. : National Conference of State Legislatures, c1997.
LC Call Number: GV415 .R34 1997
LC Catalog Record: 97186871

This was a Legislative finance paper (no. 106) from the National Conference of State Legislatures and looks at some of the ball parks that were built.

Rappaport, Jordan, & Wilkerson, Chad (2001). "What are the benefits of hosting a major league sports franchise?" Economic Review - Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 86(1), 55-86.
https://www.kansascityfed.org/.../econrevarchive/2001/1q01rapp.pdf?la=en External Link [PDF format: 202 KB/32 p.]
Economic Review homepage External Link

This article lays out that arguments both in favor of and against using public funds to build sports facilities and looks at the job creation, tax revenue, and quality-of-life issues.

Siegfried, John, and Andrew Zimbalist. "The Economics of Sports Facilities and Their Communities," Journal of Economic Perspectives (Summer 2000), pp. 95-114.

Stadium Financing and Franchise Relocation Act of 1999: hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, first session, on S. 952, a bill to expand an antitrust exemption applicable to professional sports leagues and to require, as a condition of such an exemption, participation by professional football and major league baseball sports leagues in the financing ... Washington, DC; Washington, DC; Philadelphia, PA, June 15, June 22, and September 13, 1999.
Washington : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, 2000.
151 p.
LC Call Number: KF26 .J8 1999t
LC Catalog Record: 00328909
Text of Bill [PDF format: 125 KB / 9 p.]

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. Professional sports stadiums : do they divert public funds from critical public infrastructure? : hearing before the Subcommittee on Domestic Policy of the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, first session, October 10, 2007. Washington : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 2009.
LC Call Number: KF27 .O942 2007m
LC Catalog Record: 2009438903

This is an account of the hearings before the Committee and included testimony from Judith Long Grant, an assistant professor of urban planning at Harvard and Eric Solomon and Assistant Secretary for Tax Policy at the Treasury Department. It also includes a number of letters from interested parties. An electronic version is available via HathiTrust External Link and the GPO's FedSys [PDF format: 6419 KB / 150 pp.] (Serial no. 110-193)

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Stadium Financing and Franchise Relocation Act of 1999 : hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, first session, on S. 952, a bill to expand an antitrust exemption applicable to professional sports leagues and to require, as a condition of such an exemption, participation by professional football and major league baseball sports leagues in the financing ... Washington, DC; Washington, DC; Philadelphia, PA, June 15, June 22, and September 13, 1999. Washington : U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, 2000.
LC Call Number: KF26 .J8 1999t
LC Catalog Record: 00328909

Panel consisting of Hon. Thomas M. Finneran, speaker, Massachusetts House of Representatives; Hon. Edith G. Prague, assistant majority leader, Connecticut State senate; John Moag, Jr., Legg Mason Wood Walker, Inc.; Hon. Jean B. Cryor, Delegate, Maryland House of Delegates; D. Bruce Poole, former delegate, Maryland House of Delegates; Andrew Zimbalist, Robert A. Woods, professor of economics, Smith College; and Mark S. Rosentraub, professor, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University. An electronic version is available via HathiTrust External Link and the GPO's FedSys [PDF format: 801 KB / 155 pp.] (Serial no. J-106-32, S. Hrg. 106-484)

Wilhem, Sarah. "Public Funding of Sports Stadiums," Volume 4, Issue 4, 2008.
Archived copy from the Internet Archive External Link

Zaretsky, Adam M. "Should Cities Pay for Sports Facilities?" The Regional Economist, April 2001.
https://www.stlouisfed.org/Publications/Regional-Economist/April-2001/Should-Cities-Pay-for-Sports-Facilities External Link

Top of Page Back to Top


Naming Rights

Biderman, David. "The Stadium-Naming Game --- some Companies Score Big Wins with Sponsorships, as Others See the Home Team Flop; Gillette's Sharp Deal." Wall Street Journal, (Feb 03, 2010.)

Deckard, Linda, "Arena execs voice opinions on 'name game' business branding," in Amusement Business, 113, 30. (July 30, 2001). p. 10
LC Call Number: GV1851.A3 A55
LC Catalog Record: 63057670
Also available electronically to patrons onsite at the Library and to other subscribers through several subscription databases including ProQuest ABI Inform Global and Gale General OneFile.

Hollis, Sam. "Stadium naming rights -- A guided tour." Journal Of Sponsorship 1, no. 4 (July 2008): 388-394.

Also available electronically to patrons onsite at the Library and to other subscribers through several subscription databases such as Business Source Complete.

Johnson, Ben, " Out with the old stadiums, in with the new," in National Real Estate Investor, volume 49,
issue 10, October 2007. p. 144.
LC Call Number: HD251 .N36
LC Catalog Record: 65003802
Also available electronically to patrons onsite at the Library and to other subscribers through several subscription databases including ProQuest ABI Inform Global and Gale General OneFile, and Wilson OmniFile Full Text Mega Edition (Business Full Text).

Lico, Nick, "Naming-rights deals only getting hotter," in Advertising Age. Volume 78, Number 5, January 29, 2007. p. S4.
LC Call Number: HF5801 .A276
LC Catalog Record: 42047059
Also available electronically to patrons onsite at the Library and to other subscribers through several subscription databases including EBSCO Academic Search Complete and Gale General OneFile.

"Look before you leap into naming rights agreements." Managing Intellectual Property. (October 2009).

Rozin, Skip, "Commentary: Welcome to U.S. Widget Stadium," in Business Week. September 11, 2000. p.124.
LC Call Number: HF5001 .B89
LC Catalog Record: 31006225
Also available electronically to patrons onsite at the Library and to other subscribers through several subscription databases including EBSCO Academic Search Complete and Gale General OneFile.

Zaslow, Jeffrey, "Moving On -- It's Root, Root, Root for the Old Stadium: Saying Goodbye to Childhood Haunts," in Wall Street Journal. March 25, 2004. p. D1.
LC Call Number: Newspaper Microfilm 3066; N&CPRR Microfilm Self-service Coll
LC Catalog Record: sn 79004569
Also available electronically to patrons onsite at the Library and to other subscribers through several subscription databases including ProQuest ABI Inform Global.

Top of Page Back to Top


Managing

Appelbaum, S. H., Adeland, E., & Harris, J. (2005). "Management of sports facilities: Stress and terrorism since 9/11." Management Research News, 28(7), 69-83.

Journal of Sport Administration & Supervision : a systems-based thinking & learning journal. Murfreesboro, Tenn. : Middle Tennessee State University Sport management
http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jsas/
http://js.sagamorepub.com/jasm

This journal was published from 2009-2012, and then was continued by the Journal of Applied Sport Management which can be found in full-text database like ABI-INFORM and Academic OneFile.

Schwarz, Eric. C., Hans Westerbeek, Dongfeng Liu, Paul Emery and Paul Turner. Managing Sport Facilities and Major Events. Second Edition. New York : Routledge, 2016. -- ©2017
LC Call Number: GV401 .M33 2016
LC Catalog Record: 2016021158
This upcoming title aims to be an introduction to sport facility and major event management. It is an update of a title published in 2006.

Schwarz, Eric C., Stacey A. Hall and Simon Shibli. Sport Facility Operations Management : A Global Perspective. Second edition. New York : Routledge, 2015.
LC Call Number: GV401 .S34 2015
LC Catalog Record: 2014046926

This is a textbook that aims to provide a theoretical foundation for sport facility operations management. There is also a companion site External Link that contains schematics, planning documents, sample forms, and sample ownership/ management structures.

Top of Page Back to Top


Library of Congress Catalog Searches

Additional works on the business of football in the Library of Congress may be identified by searching the Online Catalog under appropriate Library of Congress subject headings. Choose the topics you wish to search from the following list of Library of Congress subject headings to link directly to the Catalog and automatically execute a search for the subject selected. Please be aware that during periods of heavy use you may encounter delays in accessing the catalog. For assistance in locating the many other subject headings which relate to football as a business, please consult a reference librarian.

Last Updated: 09/19/2017

Top of Page Top of Page
  Home >> Guides >> BERA >> Issue 3/4
  The Library of Congress >> Researchers
  September 19, 2017
Legal | External Link Disclaimer

Contact Us:  
Ask a Librarian