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   Issue 7/8, Winter 2006/Spring 2007

Trade Policy, Treaties & Trade Law Resources

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This section provides links to U.S. and world trade policy Internet resources. The resources listed are comprised of U.S. government, regional and global institutions responsible for creating, managing and implementing world trade policies. In addition to trade policy resources, there are also links to information on international agreements and treaties, lists of treaties and international trade agreements, as well as access to actual text of official documents. Also available are Trade Law Resources consisting of online trade law guides, web sites to institutions of international law, legal publications, and other trade law information resources.

Selected Print Resources

Bhala, Raj and Kevin Kennedy. World Trade Law: The GATT-WTO System, Regional Arrangements, and U.S. Law. Charlottesville, Va.: Lexis Law Pub., c1998.
LC Call Number: K4600 .B48 1998 Law Library
LC Catalog Record: 98065392

This extensive volume provides both an introduction and a discussion of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Organization (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) System as well as a discussion of key topics such as regional trade obligations, customs laws, antidumping, intellectual property, and trade liberalization.

Bossche, Peter van den and Werner Zdouc. The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization : Text, Cases, and Materials. 3rd ed. Cambridge, United Kingdom : Cambridge University Press, 2013.
LC Call Number: K4610 .B67 2013 Law Library
LC Catalog Record: 2013362152

BERA - Business & Economics Research Advisor - A Quarterly Guide to Business & Economics Topics

Issue 7/8: Winter 2006/Spring 2007
Updated December 2013

International Economics & Trade

Table of Contents

World Economic History
International Trade & Global Commerce
International Finance
Foreign Exchange Market
Trade Policy, Treaties, & Law
International Organizations & Economic Development
Country Data
Economic Trade Data & Statistics
U.S. Government Resources
Online Periodicals
Encyclopedias & Dictionaries

Hanjin company container ship at port in the Port of Vancouver
Image (above):
Hanjin company container ship at port in the Port of Vancouver
Courtesy of Joseph Sams.
Provides a clear introduction to the basic principles of the multilateral trading system and its detailed examination of the law of the World Trade Organization.
Table of Contents:
1. International trade and law of the WTO
2. The World Trade Organization
3. WTO Dispute Settlement
4. Most favoured nation treatment
5. National treatment
6. Tariff barriers
7. Non-tariff barriers
8. General and security exceptions
9. Economic emergency exceptions
10. Regional trade exceptions
11. Dumping
12. Subsidies
13. Technical barriers to trade
14. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures
15. Intellectual property rights
16. Future challenges to the WTO and the multilateral trade system.

Corporate Counsel’s Guide: Laws of International Trade, edited by William H. Hancock. Chesterland, Ohio : Business Laws, Inc., [c1986]- .
LC Call Number: KF390.B8 C67 Law Library
LC Catalog Record: 87410775

Volume one focus on U.S. law for import, export and antitrust laws while volumes three and four focus on foreign law. Volume five includes a useful glossary as well as Internet/online sources.

Journal of International Economic Law. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; Avenel, NJ: Distributed by M.A.I.L. America, c1998 – to date.
LC Call Number: K10.O8688 Law Library
LC Catalog Record: 99031665

The Journal of International Economic Law is dedicated to encouraging thoughtful and scholarly attention to a very broad range of subjects that concern the relation of law to international economic activity.

Law & Practice of the World Trade Organization. Joseph F. Dennin, general editor. New York: Oceana Publications, 1995-.
LC Call Number: K4600 .L38 Law Library
LC Catalog Record: 95150551

Loose leaf series provides an extensive examination of these new rules of international trade, as negotiated by representatives of more than 120 nations. The first volume provides final texts of all relevant documents involved in the creation of the WTO (Marrakesh Declaration, the Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization, GATT 1994, the Uruguay Round Agreements, and the Plurilateral Trade Agreements and related Ministerial Decisions, Declarations and Understandings). The set includes the full-text decisions of the Dispute Settlement panels and a separate volume, dedicated to informative Commentary from leading authorities in the fields of Financial Services, Antidumping, Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, etc.

Least Developed Countries Report. Prepared by the UNCTAD Secretariat. New York, N.Y.: United Nations, 1984 – to date. : Annual, 1984 – 1999; Biennial, 2000 – to date.
LC Call Number: HC59.7 .L328 Law Library [Latest edition also available in Business
LC Catalog Record: 90649022
Online Editions External Link

The Least Developed Countries Report (LDC) provides socioeconomic analysis and data on the world’s most impoverished countries. Includes a statistical annex, which provides basic data on the LDCs.

Letterman, G. Gregory. Letterman’s Guide to International Business. Deerfield, IL: Clark Boardman Callaghan, c1996- 2000?.
LC Call Number: KF390.B8 L47 Law Library
LC Catalog Record: 96018160

This loose leaf set includes much information of a basic nature like tables of abbreviations, types of legal systems, types of legal professions found in various countries, accounting rules, system comparisons and cultural and business environments. Other chapters cover: terms and organizations; U.S. export information; U.S. and foreign import customs and tariffs (with free trade zone information); international financial transaction (currency exchange and interest rate discussion); international investment; intellectual property; immigration and labor; tax issues, transnational dispute resolution; etc. Chapters 16 - 21 are geographic and individual country discussions.

United States Legislation on Foreign Relations and International Commerce: A Chronological and Subject Index of Public Laws and Joint Resolutions of the Congress of the United States, edited by Igor I. Kavass and Michael J. Blake. Buffalo, N.Y.: W.S. Hein, 1977 – 1999?
LC Call Number: KF4650 .A3698 1977 Law Library
LC Catalog Record: 76051898

This set, portions of which were issued in loose leaf format, provides historical notations on U.S. legislation regarding international trade. It is chronologically organized with the name of the bill as well as Statutes at Large citations. Volume 1 covers 1789-1899; volume 2, 1900-1929; volume 3, 1930-1949; volume 4, 1950-1969; volume 5, 1970-1979; volume 6, 1980-1986; volume 7, 1987-1991 (loose-leaf); and volume 8, 1992-1994 (loose-leaf). Volume 8 notes that "with volume 7 ... it has become a collection of the texts of the major legislative measures and statements on international matters enacted by the United States Congress."

World Investment Report. New York: United Nations, 1991 – to date. Annual.
LC Call Number: HG4538 .W673 Law Library [Latest edition also available in Business Reference]
LC Catalog Record: 93656148
Online editions External Link

The World Investment Report focuses on trends in foreign direct investment (FDI) worldwide, at the regional and country levels and emerging measures to improve its contribution to development. Includes and analysis is of the trends in FDI during the previous year, Ranking of the largest transnational corporations in the world, statistical annex with data on FDI flows and stocks for 196 economies, etc.

The WTO Agreements Series. Geneva: World Trade Organization, c1999- .
LC Call Number: K4608 1999 Law Library
LC Catalog Record: 00338366
Online editions External Link

This set contains the agreement that established the WTO as well as various agreements on tariffs and trade.

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Selected Internet Resources

      Trade Policy     International Trade Agreements & Treaties     Trade Law Resources

Trade Policy

Bureau of Industry and Security. (BIS) U.S. Department of Commerce.

The mission of BIS is to advance U.S. national security, foreign policy, and economic objectives by ensuring an effective export control and treaty compliance system and promoting continued U.S. strategic technology leadership. The Policies and Regulations link includes key regulatory issues, regional concerns with country by country information on Exports and Re-exports, and Export Administration Regulations.

Country Commercial Guides. U.S. Department of State.

Country Commercial Guides are prepared annually by U.S. embassies with the assistance of several U.S. government agencies. These reports present a comprehensive look at countries' commercial environments, using economic, political and market analysis.

European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies. External Link

The Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies high quality interdisciplinary research on three core themes: Integration, Governance and Democracy; Regulating Markets and Governing Money; and 21st Century World Politics and Europe.

Foreign Trade Information System. External Link

SICE (Sistema de Información al Comercio Exterior) is the information technology arm of the Trade Unit of the Organization of American States (OAS). Provides information and documents on trade in the Western Hemisphere. Includes trade agreements by Signatory and Type.

International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Includes trade statistics as well as other trade publications like the U.S. Industry and Trade Outlook.

Market Access and Compliance. International Trade Administration, U.S. Dept. of Commerce.

MAC's overall objectives are to obtain market access for American firms and workers and to achieve full compliance by foreign nations with trade agreements they sign with our country. Includes special initiative areas like Northern Ireland and Border Counties, Japan, Africa, China, Latin America, and Russia. Also available from this site is the Trade Compliance Center

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers. U.S. Trade Representative

"A companion piece to the President's Trade Policy Agenda published by USTR this document highlights significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. This report is based upon information compiled within USTR, the Departments of Commerce and Agriculture, and other U.S. Government agencies, and supplemented with information provided in response to a notice published in the Federal Register, and by members of the private sector trade advisory committees and U.S. Embassies abroad."--From the website.

Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR).

The USTR negotiate directly with foreign governments to create trade agreements, resolve disputes and participate in global trade policy organizations. They also meet with governments, business groups, legislators and public interest groups to gather input on trade issues and explain the president’s trade policy positions. Includes bilateral, regional and global trade agreements. The World Regions tab includes information on detailed information on USTR's involvement in the following regions of the world. Trade Sectors tab includes information various sectors like agriculture, intellectual property, investment, etc.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). External Link

The UNCTAD promotes the development-friendly integration of developing countries into the world economy. The Main Publications link includes the World Investment Report, Least Developed Countries Report (LDC), the Trade and Development Report (TDR), and others. Also includes databases like Foreign Direct Investment database, and subscription sources like Commodity Price Statistics On-line Database, UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics on-line, and UNCTAD-TRAINS. Web site in French, English, and Spanish.

U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC).

An independent federal agency determining import injury to U.S. industries in antidumping, countervailing duty, and global and China safeguard investigations; directing actions against unfair trade practices involving patent, trademark, and copyright infringement; supporting policymakers through economic analysis and research on the global competitiveness of U.S. industries; and maintaining the U.S. Harmonized Tariff Schedule. There is Industry and Economic Analysis, information on Trade Remedy Investigations, and the Tariff Information Center which maintains the Official Harmonized Tariff Schedule.

Interactive Tariff and Trade DataWeb.

Part of the ITC, The USITC Interactive Tariff and Trade DataWeb provides international trade statistics and U.S. tariff data to the public full-time and free of charge. There is a searchable databases for trade and tariff data as well as prepared reports on trade like those for U.S. Trade by Partner Country and U.S. Trade by Geographical Region.

World Trade Organization (WTO). External Link

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization created to address the rules of trade between nations. Central to its existence are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by most of the world's trading nations and ratified in the parliaments of member nations. The goal of the organization is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers to effectively conduct global commerce. The WTO web page provides links to organizational information, WTO news and webcasts, trade topics and reports, official documents consisting of legal texts, trade policy agreements and dispute settlement reports. Other resources include economic research & analysis, statistics, and WTO publications. Web site in English, Spanish, and French.

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International Trade Agreements & Treaties

Treaties Database: List of International Treaties on Trade.
University of Oslo, Faculty of Law External Link

Convention on the Agency for the International Sale of Goods. External Link

Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). External Link

The FTAA is the result of the effort to unite the economies of the Americas into a single free trade area begun in Miami in 1994. There are nine Negotiating Groups: Market Access; Agriculture; Government Procurement; Investment; Competition Policy; Intellectual Property Rights; Services; Dispute Settlement; Subsidies, Antidumping and Countervailing Duties which negotiate text in their subject areas. There is a Hemispheric Trade and Tariff Database which contains information on the National Customs Tariff, Import and Export Statistics. Web site available in English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese.

International Agreements Negotiated by the U.S. Trade Representative. External Link

Include Global, Regional, and Bilateral trade agreements and includes the full-text as well as other information.

North American Free Trade Agreement, Secretariat (NAFTA). External Link

The NAFTA Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the dispute settlement provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Includes the full-text as well as rules and procedures. Web site in English, Spanish, and French.

Treaty Affairs. U.S. State Department.

Links to Treaties in Force, Treaty Reports, Treaties Pending in the Senate, Treaties and Other International Acts Series, and other information on treaties are found on this page.

Trade Agreements. Trade Compliance Center, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Agreements available include Intellectual Property Rights Agreements, WTO Agreements, Free Trade Agreements, Preview Free Trade Agreements, and Bilateral Investment Treaties.

Trade and Commercial Relations. Fletcher School of Tufts University. External Link
Archived in Internet Archive.

Trade and Commercial Agreements from the Multilaterals Project begun in 1992. This is an ongoing project at The Fletcher School, Tufts University to make available the texts of international multilateral conventions and other instruments. Includes GATT, patent, copyright, trademark, and other related treaties and agreements.

Treaties and International Law. Internet Law Library. External Link

Links to various trade related agreements, treaties, etc.

Treaty on European Union. External Link

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). External Link

UNCITRAL's business is the modernization and harmonization of rules on international business. Includes: texts endorsed by UNCITRAL; UNCITRAL Texts & Status; as well as Resolutions of the General Assembly; Commission documents, Working Groups documents; Conference room papers; Information series papers; and the UNCITRAL yearbook. Web site in English, French, Spanish, Japanese, Arabic, and Russian.

World Trade Organization Agreements. External Link

Most of the WTO agreements are the result of the 1986–94 Uruguay Round negotiations, signed at the Marrakesh ministerial meeting in April 1994. There are about 60 agreements and decisions Final Act and various annexes in full-text in .PDF and Word and includes summaries, browseable texts, and interpretations. Also includes pre-WTO legal texts.

World Trade Agreement Uruguay Round Final Acts (1994). External Link

Final Act and various annexes in full-text in PDF and WordPerfect.

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Trade Law Resources

Electronic Library on International Commercial Law and the CISG Pace Law School Institute of International Commercial Law. External Link

The UN Convention on the Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) is the uniform international sales law of countries. Site includes links to: Texts of commercial law documents and international law sites. Also includes text of Annotated text of the CISG and Diplomatic Conference texts, searchable database of cases, Advisory Council opinions, texts of CISG in different languages, scholarly work on CISG, etc.

Guide to Global Trade Law. External Link

Links to organizations, various government agencies of the world, associations, supranational organizations, and other resources.

Revised Guide to International Trade Law Sources on the Internet. External Link

Produced by Marci Hoffman, an International & Foreign Law Librarian at the E.B. Williams Law Library, Georgetown University Law Center, includes links to trade agreement collections, government sites, bibliographies, statistics, country guides, Commentary and Analysis, etc.

Guide to Law Online (International) - Library of Congress Law Library.

Includes Guides to treaties, Law Reviews Online, and Multinational Reference. There is also the Multinational Legal Database GLIN - a public database of laws, regulations, judicial decisions, and other complementary legal sources contributed by governmental agencies and international organizations.

Institute of International Economic Law. Georgetown University Law Center. External Link

Various guides include: Researching International Trade Law; From the GATT to the WTO: An Overview; WTO/GATT Research; Researching Antitrust Law; Treaty Research; Researching the European Union; ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law

International Trade Law. FindLaw. External Link

Includes FindLaw articles as well as links to web guides, online discussion groups, government agencies, Laws and Government Documents, etc.

International Economic Law. American Society of International Law. External Link

Provides many links to related material on various aspects of International Law including: trade, regional economic integration, international business regulation, intellectual property law, etc. Also includes a section on locating literature with information Online Bibliographic Catalogs and Periodical Indexes.

International Trade. New York University Law Library. External Link

Includes research/information guides on WTO/GATT and NAFTA Research.

International Trade Law. Legal Information Institute (Cornell). External Link

Includes legal information on federal (statutes and regulation) and international material.

International Trade Law Research Guide External Link

This guide was done by the Georgetown Law library and includes legal-oriented resources related to international trade law.

United States Code.

Includes the full-text of the current laws of the United States. Content for trade/commerce is not limited to one particular title though Title 15 is Commerce & Trade, Title 19 is Customs & Duties, and Title 22 is Foreign Relations & Intercourse.

World Trade Law. External Link

Part free part paid source include many trade related sources/data. Paid content includes: WTO Case Law Index; GATT/WTO Cases; WTO Disputes information; etc. Free content includes: various links and documents regarding NAFTA, GATT, and the WTO; Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements; etc.

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Library of Congress Catalog Searches

Additional resources on this topic in the Library of Congress may be identified by searching the Online Catalog under appropriate Library of Congress subject headings. Choose the topics you wish to search from the following list of Library of Congress subject headings to link directly to the Catalog and automatically execute a search for the subject selected. Please be aware that during periods of heavy use you may encounter delays in accessing the catalog. Please see the individual sections of this guide for catalog searches relating to those topics. For assistance in locating other subject headings which relate to this subject, please consult a reference librarian.

Last Updated: 02/07/2017

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