When it comes to historical statistics, many of the statistics on imports/exports, prices, and consumption that were gathered on sugar and sugar cane both for the United States and internationally that are found in trade literature, came from circulars published by merchant firms like Willett & Gray (New York and Boston), H. Clark, and J.W. de Silva & Co.. While these firms and their data/publications were well known at the time, it may be harder for modern researchers to find more than what was reported/collected by others.
While this section does not focus on any particular country, state, or geographic region, many titles do include analysis and information by location. To do research focusing on a state, region, or country, see the sections devoted to places.
The American Sugar Industry and Beet Sugar Gazette. Chicago, Ill., U.S.A. : Beet Sugar Gazette Co., 1904-1911.
LC Call Number: TP375 .S755
LC Catalog Record: 98642006
LC Catalog Record: 98642007
LC Catalog Record: 98642005
Holding: v1 (1899) – v31 (1929).
Continues Beet Sugar Gazette (1899-1903) and is continued by American Sugar Industry (1904-1913) and Sugar (1914-1929). This covers the general sugar industry (cane and beet) though for a time there was a focus on beet sugar. It mostly consists of short articles that cover a wide variety of business and technical/agricultural topics. The focus is on the United States but coverage does include international topics. There are regular statistics on consumption, prices, and trade.
Aykroyd, W. R. The Story of Sugar. Chicago, Quadrangle Books, 1967.
LC Call Number: TP375.7 .A9
LC Catalog Record: 67012352
This title is a broad history of sugar and sugar cane beginning with the earliest cultivation over 2,000 years ago though the modern age.
Ballinger, Roy Arthur. A History of Sugar Marketing Through 1974. Washington : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, 1978.
LC Call Number: HD1751 .A91854 no. 382
LC Catalog Record: 78601770
Available online [PDF format: 7.97 MB/102 pp.]
This is an historical overview. It starts from before the discovery of the New World and continues through the colonial period, the years before the Civil War, the late 19th century, the period of change after the Spanish-American War, the industry during World War I, the period after the war when prices and tariffs fluctuated, the era prior to World War II as well as the war years, and the period beginning in 1947. There is a section on U.S. government regulations as well as some international coverage, and the work includes a good bibliography. The title was also published as Agricultural Economic Report ; no. 382, and supersedes A History of Sugar Marketing, AER-197, also by Ballinger, issued in February 1971.
Ballinger, Roy Arthur. Sugar During World War II. [Washington] 1946.
LC Call Number: HD9106 .B25
LC Catalog Record: 47024628
This is a War Records Monograph #3 from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at the USDA. Chapters include topics like: position at the outbreak of war; production during the war; rationing in 1942-45; government purchase of sugar and molasses; purchases from Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti; sugar allocation in the U.S. and UN; effects of the Sugar Program; and the post war era.
Dalton, John Edward. Sugar; a Case Study of Government Control. New York, The Macmillan company, 1937.
LC Call Number: HD9106 .D3
LC Catalog Record: 37002039
This title is an early historical treatment of government control of sugar including supplies, prices, and tariffs. It was written before the presidential election of 1936 and therefore before any changes wrought by the Sugar Act of 1937. It would be good for understanding the situation as it existed in 1936 before the Act. There are 18 chapters: History before the Depression; the world sugar depression; The Depression; stabilization agreement the industry's plan (1933/34 time frame); the Sugar Act the government's plan (1934); the plan in action; adjustments to the plan; beet sugar industry; domestic can sugar industry in Louisiana and Florida; background chapter and another chapter on the industry in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Philippines; the industry in Cuba; on refineries; on the consumer.
Deerr, Noël. The History of Sugar. London, Chapman and Hall, 1949-50.
LC Call Number: TP375.7 .D4
LC Catalog Record: 50004658
This is a two volume set from an English perspective. Volume one is a large historical overview but broken down within it by rough time periods. It covers the history of Greece and Rome, Persia, the Mediterranean, and the various colonial endeavors of Spain, France, Danish, etc.There is some attention the United States industry but treated similar to the other colonial relations particularly with regards to Hawaii. Volume two focuses on the industry in the United States with chapters focused before slavery and after, as well as chapters on refining, duties/trade, beet/beet sugar; etc.
Facts About Sugar. New York City : Domestic Sugar Producers, [1914-1941] Vol. 1, no. 1 (July 1914)-v. 36, no. 3 (Mar. 1941).
LC Call Number: HD9100.1 .S8
LC Catalog Record: sn83002289
Overall holdings under this call number are 1914-1996. This title has other names and is continued by Sugar (1940-1995) and then by Sugar y Azúcar (1988-1996 incomplete for more recent years). The title is in English for its full run. Articles are international in scope and cover all aspects of technology, agriculture, and industry. There are regular charts with trade and other statistics. Some copies of these have been digitized by various entities.
Galloway, J. H. The Sugar Cane Industry : an Historical Geography from its Origins to 1914. Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1989.
LC Call Number: HD9100.5 .G29 1989
LC Catalog Record: 88022823
The first two chapters cover the manufacture and the Eastern origins of sugar. Then it moves into Part I which looks at the industry in the west including the Mediterranean (700–1600), the Atlantic trade (c. 1450–1680), American industry in the 18th century. Other chapters look at innovations and geographical changes from 1790–1914. Section II looks at that Industry in the east including Asia from 1750–1914 and the Indian Ocean and Pacific colonies from 1800–1914.
International Sugar Journal. High Wycombe, Bucks, Eng. [etc.] International Sugar Journal [etc.] v. 1- Jan. 1899-
LC Call Number: TP375 .I6
LC Catalog Record: ca08002782
Holdings: 1899-1995, monthly. The focus is technical and commercial and covers both cane and beet sugar. It contains a lot of articles and statistics (consumption, prices, crop information, and exchange) and most of the statistics are international. For the United States it looks by port.
Library of Congress. Division of Bibliography. Select List of References on Sugar, Chiefly in its Economic Aspects; comp. under the direction of Hermann Henry Bernard Mayer, chief bibliographer. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1910
LC Call Number: Z881 .U5 '08
LC Catalog Record: 09035006
This is a bibliography published in 1910 and is a good resource for tracking down older material published on the sugar industry. It seems to have an economic/business focus but there is some attention to the agriculture and chemistry/manufacturing. There are sections for congressional documents; speeches from the Congressional Record; articles in the US Consular Reports; sources in the British Parliamentary Papers; early literature before 1850; articles; periodicals; and subject and author index. A digitized version of this is available via the HathiTrust.
Lynsky, Myer. Sugar Economics, Statistics, and Documents, Research division. A publication of the United States Cane Sugar Refiners' Association. [New York] 1938.
LC Call Number: HD9105 .L8
LC Catalog Record: 39005759
There are statistics as well as reproductions of important document related to the regulation of the industry and trade. Sections cover: consumer (prices and consumption); distribution to consumer (internal refining and importing); quotas and government control; output, crop adjustment, prices; beet sugar; Louisiana; Hawaii; Puerto Rico; Philippines; Cuba; Continental refining; and the rest of the world. Most of the data doesn't begin until various dates in the 20th century.
Manual of Sugar Companies. New York : Farr & Co.
LC Call Number: HD9100.4 .F3
LC Catalog Record: 21016053
Holdings: 1920-1956. This is a listing of international sugar companies. Each company has an abbreviated financial report including production and earnings, dividends, stock price range, balance sheet, income statement, officer/director information, and a brief history and events. There are also sections for various segments/interests including: beet sugar, sugar industry in various countries, etc. There are various tables interspersed throughout that include price information, statistics, and consumption.
Prinsen Geerligs, H. C. The World's Cane Sugar Industry, Past and Present. Altrincham (Manchester) N. Rodger, 1912.
LC Call Number: HD9100.5 .P8
LC Catalog Record: 13005516
Part I is a general world history; Part II covers Asia (individual chapters by country), Europe, the Americas (individual chapters by country); Africa; and Australasia (individual countries are included). Digital versions of this are available via the HathiTrust and the Internet Archive.
Rolph, George M. Something about Sugar; its History, Growth, Manufacture and Distribution. San Francisco, J. J. Newbegin, 1917.
LC Call Number: TP377 .R6
LC Catalog Record: 17007469
This title covers both beet and cane sugar and is broken in to two parts. Part I is growth, manufacture, and distribution; part II covers the history of the industry by looking at particular situations, people, countries, and states. Digitized versions are available via the HathiTrust and the Internet Archive.
Sugar: a Monthly Journal for Planters, Sugar Refiners and ... Others Connected with the Trade ... [London, Cordingley & co., 1889-]
LC Call Number: TP375 .S75
LC Catalog Record: ca08002789
Holdings: v1 (1899) – v12 (1900). This is an English publication but it has an international focus due to the nature of the industry. It is geared to planters, refiners, manufacturers, merchants, brokers, and others. There are statistics on imports/exports (by country), crop information (by country), and New York Prices.
“The Sugar Act of 1937.” The Yale Law Journal Vol. 47, No. 6 (Apr., 1938), pp. 980-993
This is an article published in a legal journal that looks at the new Sugar Act but puts it into some historical perspective.
The Sugar Bulletin. New Orleans, LA: [Sugar bulletin]
LC Call Number: HD9100.1 .S83
LC Catalog Record: 73647097
Holdings 1924-2009 incomplete for more recent years. This is a publication for members of the American Sugar Cane League whose focus is to promote the U.S. industry over foreign imports. It contains news, current events, and other stories of interest to its members.
The Sugar Cane: a Monthly Magazine, Devoted to the Interests of the Sugar Cane Industry. Manchester [Eng.] Galt & co. [etc.] 1869-98.
LC Call Number: TP375 .S8
LC Catalog Record: ca08002790
Holdings: v1 (1869) – v30 (1898), monthly. This is a UK publication that covers the international market and trade. It has articles that report on technical, agricultural, and legal issues for the cane and beet sugar. There is some indexing per volume but it isn't consistent.
Sugar Reference Book and Directory ... a handy volume of facts and figures useful to those engaged in the production, refining, transportation, purchase or sale of sugar or sugar house equipment and supplies ... New York, Palmer publishing corporation of N.Y. [c19 ]
LC Call Number: HD9100.2 .S8
LC Catalog Record: ca33000756
Holdings 1932-1957. This title is predominantly statistics but there is a buyer's guide, written analysis on big topics like the Administration of the Sugar Acts, and technical progress of the industry. There is a synopsis of Annual Reports of Leading Sugar Companies with a brief chart covering two years of financials and including executive names. Statistics include: U.S. supply; U.S. deliveries; Louisiana productions, beet sugar production by state; consumption by industry; world productions; consumption; and trade.
Sugar Statistics. Washington : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Production and Marketing Administration. Sugar Branch,1953
LC Call Number: HD9104.A48
LC Catalog Record: 54060543
This is a title published in 1953 and later revised in 1957 and periodically after that (see HD1751.A5). Its data was compiled as a result of requirements of the various Sugar Acts and covers cane and beet sugar data – it specifies that data begins with the Jones-Costigan amendment of the Sugar Act of 1934. This is Volume I of a two volume set. It covers: U.S. continental delivery, stock, receipts, melting and production of cane and beet sugar for consumption and export; quotas, actions by area of origin and supplies for consumption; prices; other related labor and income/expenditure data. It also has the related acts and payment, tariffs, information on Cuba and the Philippines (production, stocks, exports, value, prices), world (production, trade, consumption).
Sugar Year Book. London, International Sugar Council [n.d.]
LC Call Number: HD9100.2 .P6
LC Catalog Record: 49027323
Holdings: 1948-1991. Content changed and was added over time, but overall it the bulk of the title is specific tables per country and covers centrifugal sugar only. Data per table is for a few years prior to the annual edition and can vary somewhat – some countries have two tables other only one. Tables include general data including production, exports, consumption, and stock as year-end. Another table is devoted to exports by country destination in metric ton. Some of the data in the tables is additional and more specific depending on the country. For example in the U.S. pages there are additional tables with more specific production and consumption columns and columns for beet and cane sugar as well as columns for Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Island.
United States. Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Sugar Statistics and Data compiled in the administration of the U.S. sugar acts. Rev. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Commodity Stabilization Service, Sugar Division, 1957-59.
LC Call Number: HD1751 .A5 1957
LC Catalog Record: 57060998
This titles was published in 1957 as Bulletin 214 and has statistics compiled as a result of requirements of the sugar acts and covers cane and beet sugar data and revised a similar publication from 1953 (see HD9104.A48) and subsequently in 1961, 1969, and 1975. It indicates it is Volume I as it is intended to be part of a two volume set, with Volume 2 published separately. It contains 8 sections: distribution, stocks, receipts, melting and production by primary distribution; quotas; prices; related indexes; payments and tax collection; tariffs; Cuba and the Philippines; and international. This report is bound with other published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
United States. Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Sugar Statistics and Related Data compiled in the administration of the U. S. sugar acts. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, Sugar Division, 1961-
LC Call Number: HD1751 .A5 1961
LC Catalog Record: 62060419
These are statistics compiled as a result of requirements of the sugar acts and covers cane and beet sugar data and relate to distribution, supply, production, and quotas. Data is primarily 20th century. This is a two volume set sometimes seen as Bulletin 244 and 293. The first edition published in June 1953 (HD9104.A48) as well as 1957, 1969, and 1975. Contains sections on: distribution, stocks, receipts, melting and production by primary distribution; quotas; prices; related indexes; payments and tax collection; tariffs; Cuba and the Philippines; and international.
United States. Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Sugar Statistics and Related Data compiled in the administration of the U.S. sugar acts. Rev. Washington, 1969-
LC Call Number: HD1751 .A5 1969
LC Catalog Record: 75609622
This is Bulletin 244 volumes I and II. It has statistics compiled as a result of requirements of the Sugar Acts and covers cane and beet sugar data. It was originally published in 1953 (HD9104.A48) but also in 1957, 1961, and 1975. The data in Volume I contains sections on: distribution, stocks, receipts, melting and production by primary distribution; quotas; prices; related indexes; payments and tax collection; tariffs; Cuba and the Philippines; and international while volume to is aggregate U.S. data as well as data for Louisiana, Florida, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Virgin Islands. This report is part of a larger set with others published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture but bound individually.
United States. Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Sugar Statistics and Related Data / compiled in the administration of the U.S. sugar acts. Rev. Washington : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, Sugar Division, 1975.
LC Call Number: HD1751 .A5 1975
LC Catalog Record: 75601391
This is Bulletin 244 volumes 1 and 2 of the two set titles published in May 1975. The data in Volume I contains sections on: distribution, stocks, receipts, melting and production by primary distribution; quotas; prices; related indexes; payments and tax collection; tariffs; Cuba and the Philippines; and international while volume to is aggregate U.S. data as well as data for Louisiana, Florida, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Virgin Islands. This report is part of a larger set with others published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture but bound individually.
United States. Bureau of the Census. Census of Manufactures: 1914. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1917.
LC Call Number: HD9104 .A4 1914
LC Catalog Record: 17026522
Data was collected from the Census of Manufactures and covers the beet and cane sugar industries and is comparative with 1909. Statistics are an abbreviated version of the type covered for the modern Economic Census. Establishment and employee totals, rent, costs, and value information as well as how operations are powered.
United States. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth Census of the United States. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1922.
LC Call Number: HD9104 .A4 1919
LC Catalog Record: 22026633
Data gathered as part of the Census of Manufactures. Covers beet and cane sugar and statistics are for 1914 and 1919. Statistics are an abbreviated version of the type covered for the modern Economic Census. Establishment and employee totals, rent, costs, and value information as well as how operations are powered.
United States. Bureau of the Census. 16th Census of the United States: 1940. Manufactures: 1939. Sugar subgroup ... Confectionery and related products subgroup ... Washington, U. S. Govt. print. off., 1941.
LC Call Number: HD9104 .A4 1940a
LC Catalog Record: 41051029
Data gathered as part of the Census and includes production, imports, exports. Data is current for the time covered. Data similar to modern though not as detailed. More detailed than data gathered as part of the 14th Census. More data broken down by state and also includes confectionery products (candy, chocolate, gum).
United States. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce (Department of commerce). The Cane Sugar Industry. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1917.
LC Call Number: HD9100.6 .U6
LC Catalog Record: 17026578
Covers the agricultural, manufacturing, and marketing of cane sugar in Porto (Puerto) Rico, Louisiana, and Cuba and includes written analysis and many charts with statistics. It isn't an historical overview but presents the industry as it was in 1917.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Finance. Sugar : hearings before the Committee on finance, United States Senate, Seventy-fifth Congress, first session, on H. R. 7667, an act to regulate commerce among the several states with the territories and possessions of the United States and with foreign countries, to protect the welfare of consumers of sugars and of those engaged in the domestic sugar-producing industry, to promote the export trade of the United States, to raise revenue, and for other purposes. August 7 and 9, 1937. Revised Washington : U. S. Govt. print. off., 1937.
LC Call Number: KF26 .F5 1937
LC Catalog Record: 37021272
United States. Department of Agriculture. Selected Data on Sugar Under the Sugar act of 1948, as amended by the Sugar act amendments of 1962. Eighty-ninth Congress, first session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1965.
LC Call Number: HD9104 .A46
LC Catalog Record: 65062572
This report was done in August 1965 for Congress on the international sugar situation and predominantly consists of statistics - most tables cover the 1961-64 time frame. Tables include: quotas by country 1948-56; production by country for countries exporting to the U.S.; export to the U.S. by country; month spot prices; various import charts mostly by country; Sugar Act tax collection and payments 1937/38-1964; selected domestic production on beet and cane sugar in the U.S., Cuba, Puerto Rico; Hawaii, Virgin Islands; and world/U.S. raw sugar prices.
United States. Federal Trade Commission. Report of the Federal Trade Commission on Sugar Supply and Prices. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1920.
LC Call Number: HD9104 .A4 1920
LC Catalog Record: 20027426
Much of this title covers the 1919 and 1920 time frame. Chapter 2 covers supply and demand with sections on: conditions in early 1919; developing stringency in 1919; demand outpacing supply in 1919; depleted stocks in 1919; survey done in 1919; supply/demand situation in 1920; refining toil; sugar speculation. Section 3 is about prices and includes sections on: price disputes and speculation; beet sugar crop; Louisiana sugar crop; price equalization and control; Cuba's raw cane crop; refiners margins; wholesale prices and margins. Chapter 4 covers government policy in ration to the 1919/20 Cuban crop.
United States Tariff Commission. Statistics on Sugar. [Washington] 1939.
LC Call Number: HD9104 .A4 1939
LC Catalog Record: 42019203
This title presents statistics for cane and beet sugar in the U.S. and Cuba and includes production information, imports (value, duties collected), exports, consumption, prices on exchanges, and duty rates.
United States Tariff Commission. Statistics on Sugar. [Washington] 1940.
LC Call Number: HD9104 .A4 1940
LC Catalog Record: 42019187
This title presents statistics for cane and beet sugar in the U.S. and Cuba and includes production information, imports (value, duties collected), exports, consumption, prices on exchanges, and duty rates.
U.S. Sugar Statistical Compendium / Luigi Angelo ... [et al.]. Washington, DC : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service ; Rockville, MD : ERS-NASS [distributor, 1991]
LC Call Number: HD1751 .A5 no. 830
LC Catalog Record: 92213092
This title covers cane, beet and reports on deliveries and supply in the U.S.. Most data doesn't begin until the 1970's and covers the U.S. generally, as well as reporting on cane production individual places like Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Texas, and Puerto Rico. There is a separate section for beet data but it is reported by region.
Vogt, Paul Leroy. The Sugar Refining Industry in the United States. Its development and Present Condition, Philadelphia, Pub. for the University, 1908.
LC Call Number: HD9105 .V7
LC Catalog Record: 08013956
Chapter two is a history of the industry prior to 1887, chapter 3 covers the impact of the tariff to the growth of the industry, chapter four is the growth and organization of the sugar trust, other chapters cover related interests, prices, and capitalization/profits. A digitized version of this is also on the HathiTrust.
Wilson, Earl B. Sugar and its Wartime Controls, 1941-1947. [Limited ed. New York? 1948?]
LC Call Number: HD9105 .W5
LC Catalog Record: 49003973
This is a four volume set and chapters include: the pre-war situation; the organization; Cuba; Puerto Rico; Hawaii and west coast refiners; Louisiana and Florida; Dominican Republic; Haiti and other programs; United Cane Sugar Refiners; importers; shipping; beet sugar; combined boards and tripartite agreements; Office of Price Administration; and molasses and invert syrup.
Last updated: 02/23/2017