How to Find Information on
UNITED STATES TREATIES
In the Library of Congress
By Mary Kramer
Revised by Paul Q. Baker
History and Political Science Team
Humanities and Social Sciences Division
This guide was prepared to help Library of Congress readers
identify and locate U.S. treaties and other international
agreements. It consists of a selected and annotated list of
important treaty collections and indexes, but is not a
comprehensive listing of such sources or individual treaties.
Separately published treaties are usually individually cataloged
and represented in the card catalog or computer catalog under one
or more of the following headings:
[Name of country]--FOREIGN RELATIONS--TREATIES, ETC.
e.g. UNITED STATES--FOREIGN RELATIONS--TREATIES, ETC.
[Name of international organization]--TREATIES, ETC.
e.g. COUNCIL OF EUROPE--TREATIES, ETC.
Title of treaty
e.g. PORTSMOUTH, TREATY OF, 1905
e.g. NUCLEAR ENERGY--TREATIES, ETC.
Although most U.S. treaties can be found in sources in the Main
Reading Room (MRR) reference collection, supplementary sources are
also located in the Business Reference Services' collection (BRS,
Adams Building fifth floor), the Law Library (LL, LM 201, Madison
Building), Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room (N&CPR, LM
133, Madison Building), the Science Reading Room (SciRR, Adams
Building fifth floor), the Microform Reading Room (MicRR, LJ108,
Jefferson Building), and the general collection. If you need
assistance in your research, please consult a reference librarian.
June 1, 1994
UNITED STATES TREATIES
AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
United States treaties and other international agreements have been
fairly widely published and indexed both commercially and in
government publications. The two official sources of publication
for treaties are _United States Statutes at Large_ (before 1950)
and _United States Treaties and Other International Agreements_
(since 1950). The United States Department of State, which is the
agency responsible for treaties, issued (until 1946) the first
official texts in its _Treaty Series_ and _Executive Agreement
Series_, and since 1946 has issued them in _Treaties and Other
International Acts Series_. There are also three works which
attempt to pull together not only treaties, but also all other
international acts. These are known by the names of their
compilers--Malloy, Miller, and Bevans.
_United States Treaties and Other International Agreements_ (UST)
generally lags several years behind in publication. _Treaties and
Other International Acts Series_ (TIAS) is much more current. In
the Library of Congress, the TIAS pamphlets are bound after
approximately a year and a half and can be requested on call slips
submitted in the Law Library. The more recent, unbound issues also
are located in that reading room. The Newspaper and Current
Periodical Reading Room (LM 133) has a complete depository set of
U.S. Government documents since April 1979; TIAS items are part of
Several indexes are available for both older and more recent U.S.
treaties and other international agreements. Igor I. Kavass and his
associates have indexed them in two series up to 1990. The
Department of State published two indexes in the 1930s and issues
_Treaties in Force_ at the beginning of each year. The _Monthly
Catalog of United States Government Publications_ indexes the TIAS
Information about and texts of the most recent treaties can be
somewhat difficult to obtain. Since the late 1920s, the Department
of State has published several serials which include treaty
information. This information ranges from brief mention of treaty
ratification to complete treaty texts. The Department of State
Treaty Office, which maintains current information on treaties, has
two card files: a U.S. treaty register and a foreign treaty
register. For U.S. treaties the office keeps up-to-date information
on all bilateral and multilateral agreements on treaties no longer
in force. Other information available includes a record of which
other countries have ratified treaties, the progress of treaty
negotiations, and what actions have been taken to implement a
treaty. The Treaty Office telephone numbers for U.S. treaty
information are 202-647-1345 and 202-647-2076.
In addition, two Senate offices have copies of recent treaties
available. The Executive Clerk of the Senate is in Capitol, Room S-
134 (telephone 202-224-4341). Treaties that have been reprinted as
Senate Executive documents may be available from the Senate
Document Room, Hart Building 0-4 (telephone 202-224-7860). These
Senate Executive documents are also indexed in the Congressional
Information Service's _CIS Annual_ (which can be searched on CD-ROM
in the Main Reading Room) and are available on microfiche in the
Library's Microform Reading Room.
I. TEXTS OF UNITED STATES TREATIES
A. ORIGINAL SOURCES OF PUBLICATION
1. United States. Treaties, etc.
TREATY SERIES. -- no. -994. -- Washington : U.S.
Govt. Print Off., [18--]-1946.
Separately published pamphlets containing the official texts of
U.S. treaties and other international agreements until 1929 and
thereafter, of treaties only. In 1946 treaties and executive
agreements were reunited in the _Treaties and Other International
Acts Series_ (TIAS). Numbering did not start until 1908, with no.
489, and has been chronological since then. Before that, up to no.
376 the arrangement was alphabetical by country and chronological
within each country. There followed a few multilateral agreements;
after no. 390, the sequence is again chronological. Texts are in
the original language. A subject index is shelved in the MRR Ref
Desk area with the call number JX235.9.A3 Index 1931. (See no. 16)
2. United States. Dept. of State.
EXECITIVE AGREEMENT SERIES. -- No. 1-506. -- Washington
: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1929-1946.
Contains the official texts of international agreement made by the
United States which are not strictly treaties (i.e., exchange of
notes, trade agreements). Prior to Oct. 1929, these had usually
been included in _Treaty Series_. In 1946 treaties and executive
agreements were once again combined in TIAS. Texts are in the
3. United States. Laws, statues, etc.
TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ACTS SERIES. -- no.
1501- . -- [Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1946- ].
Continues _Treaty Series_(994) and _Executive Agreement
Since 1946 the first official publication of all U.S. international
treaties and agreements, issued as pamphlet in original languages.
The starting number, 1501, was derived by adding the last number of
the _Treaty Series_ (994) to the last number of the _Executive
Agreement Series_ (506).
B. COMPILATION OF TEXTS
4. United States. Laws, statutes, etc.
UNITED STATES STATUTES AT LARGE. -- Vol. 1 (1789/1945)-
. -- Washington : U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1789-
KF50.U5 MRR / LLRR
From 1778 to 1950 this was the official publication source for U.S.
treaties. Treaties are included in each volume except for the years
1778-1845, when treaties were all collected in Vols. 7-8. Some
executive agreements are not included. A list of all treaties
included in Vols. 1-64, arranged alphabetically by country and by
topic within each country, appears in Vol. 64, pt. 3, p. B1107-
B1182. Official publication of treaties continued after 1950 in
_United States Treaties and Other International Agreements_.
5. United States. Treaties, etc.
TREATIES, CONVENTIONS, INTERNATIONAL ACTS, PROTOCOLS,
AND AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND
OTHER POWERS. -- Washington : U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
1910-1938. -- 4 v.
JX236 1910c MRR Alc
Within the chronological volumes material is arranged by country,
and covers the period 1776-1931. The text is in English only and
includes annotations and index.
Cited as MALLOY (compiler of the first two volumes).
6. United States. Treaties, etc.
TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ACTS OF THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA / edited by Hunter Miller. --
Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1931-1948. -- 8 v.
JX236 1931a MRR / N&CPR
Covers the period 1776-1863, arranged chronologically and with
commentary. Text is in English and official languages of each
treaty. Vol. 1 is a plan for the work.
Cited as MILLER.
7. United States. Treaties, etc.
TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIOANL AGREEMENTS OF THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 1776-1949 / compiled under the
direction of Charles J. Bevans. -- [Washington : U.S.
Govt. Print. Off., 1968-1976]. -- 13 v.
JX236 1968.A5 MRR Alc / BRS B&E / N&CPR / LLRR
Covers the period before publications of _United States Treaties
and Other International Agreements_ began. Text is in English only
with some commentary. Vols. 1-4 contain multilateral treaties
chronologically arranged; v. 5-12 contain bilateral treaties,
arranged by country; v. 13 is the index.
Cited as BEVANS; supersedes Malloy and Miller.
8. United States. Treaties, etc.
UNITED STATES TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL
AGREEMENTS. -- Vol. 1 (1950)- . -- [Washington] :
Dept. of State, 1950-
JX231.A34 MRR / N&CPR / LLRR
Since 1950 this has been the official publication for treaties and
other international agreements to which the United States is a
party. Such publications had previously been included in the
_United States Statutes at Large_. Arrangement is numerical,
following the numbering used for the pamphlets in the _Treaties and
Other International Acts Series_. Texts are in original languages;
each volume includes subject and country indexes. A four-volume
cumulative index for Vols. 1-21, covering the years 1950-1970 has
Cited as UST.
C. SPECIALIZED COMPILATIONS OF TEXTS
9. AMERICAN FOREIGN RELATIONS: a documentary record. --
(1938/39)- . -- New York : New York : New York
University Press, 1939-
JX231.D6 MRR / N&CPR / LLRR
Title varies: 1938/39-1970, _Documents on American Foreign
Contains excerpts from and complete texts of (with limited
commentary) treaties, speeches, news conferences, official
statements, etc. relating to American foreign policy. Material is
arranged by broad topic and indexed.
10. CONSOLIDATED TREATIES & INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS.
Current document service, United states. -- began in
1990 -- [Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.] : Oceana Publications, Inc.
JX236 1990.U54a LLRR
Publishes, within ninety days of release or ratification, newly
concluded international agreements, executive agreements as well as
formal treaties, which have been ratified. Whether the treaty has
been formally ratified is determined by official statements
published in the _US Department of State Dispatch_.
11. UNPERFECTED TREATIES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
1776-1976 / edited and annotated by Christian L. Wiktor.
-- Dobbs Ferry, N.Y. : Oceana Publications, 1976-
JX236 1776.U56 MRR Alc / N&CPR
Contains treaties which the United States has signed but which have
not been entered into force (i.e. those that have not been ratified
by the Senate and/or signed by the president). Indexes and
commentary are included.
II. INDEXES TO UNITED STATES TREATIES
A. SOURCES WHICH EXCLUSIVELY INDEX TREATIES
12. Kavass, Igor I.
UNITED STATES TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL
AGREEMENTS CUMULATIVE INDEX, 1776-1949 : cumulative
index to United States treaties and other international
agreements 1776-1949 as published in Statutes at large,
Malloy, Miller, Bevans, and other relevant sources /
compiled by Igor I Kavass and Mark A. Michael. --
Buffalo, N.Y. : W.S. Hein, 1975. -- 4 v.
JX231.K4 MRR Alc / N&CPR / LLRR
Vol. 1 lists in numerical order the treaties and agreements
published in the _Treaty Series_ the _Executive Agreement Series_,
and the _Treaties and Other International Acts Series_ Vol. 2
provides a chronological index, Vol. 3 a country index, and Vol. 4,
a subject index.
13. Kavass, Igor I.
UST CUMULATIVE INDEX, 1950-1970 : cumulative index to
United States treaties and other international
agreements, 1950-1970 : 1 UST-21 UST, TIAS nos. 2010-
7034 / Igor I. Kavass and Adolf Sprudzs. -- Buffalo,
N.Y. : W.S. Hein, 1973. -- 4 v.
JX231.K38 MRR Alc
14. Kavass, Igor I.
CURRENT TREATY INDEX / compiled by Igor I Kavass and
Adolf Sprudzs. -- Buffalo, N.Y. : W.S. Hein & Co., 1982-
JX236.5.C87 MRR Alc
15. United States. Dept. of State.
LIST OF TREATIES SUBMITTED TO TEH SENATE, 1789-1934. --
Washington : U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1935. -- 138 p.
JX236 1934b MRR Alc
For each treaty gives date, subject, status, country with which
negotiated, and reference to the _United States Statutes at Large_
volume in which the text appears. Arrangement is chronological.
16. United States. Dept. of State.
SUBJECT INDEX OF THE TREATY SERIES AND THE EXECUTIVE
AGREEMENT SERIES. -- Washington : U.S. Govt. Print.
Off., 1932. -- 214 p.
JX235.9.A3 Index 1931 MRR Ref Desk
In addition to the subject index, there is a numerical list of the
_Treaty Series_ as well as background information on both series.
17. United States. Dept. of State. Office of the Legal
TREATIES IN FORCE : a list treaties and other
international agreement of the United States. --
Washington : U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1929-
JX236 1929c MRR Ref Desk
Covers "treaties and other agreements which on that date had not
expired by their own terms or had not been denounced by their
parties, replaced or superseded by other agreements, or otherwise
definitely terminated." Bilateral treaties are listed by country
and then by subject; multilateral treaties are listed by subject,
MRR Alc holds issues covering approximately the last ten years.
18. UNITED STATES TREATY INDEX: 1776-1990 consolidation /
compiled and edited by Igor I. Kavass. -- Buffalo, N.Y.
: W.S. Hein, 1991.
JX231.U58 1991 MRR Alc / LLRR
Contents: v. 1. Master guide (in numerical order) TS, EAS, and AD
series -- v. 2. Master guide (in numerical order) TIAS series
(numbers 1501-4721) -- v. 3. Master guide (in numerical order) TIAS
series (numbers 4722-7987) -- v. 4. Master guide (in numerical
order) TIAS series (numbers 7988-11057) -- v. 5. Master guide (in
numerical order) KAV series (numbers 1-2500) -- v. 6. Chronological
index, 1776-1967 -- v. 7. Chronological index, 1968-1990 -- v. 8.
Country index, Abu Dhabi to Luxembourg -- v. 9. Macao to Zimbabwe
and multilateral -- v. 10. Subject index, A-K -- v. 11. Subject
"Replaces, in its entirety, the former UST cumulative indexing
service which began in 1973 ..."--Vol. 1, introd.
B. SOURCES WHICH INDEX TREATIES IN ADDITION TO OTHER MATERIAL
19. Commerce Clearing House.
CONGRESSIOANL INDEX. -- 75th Congress (1937/38)- .
Includes a section on proposed treaties which have not yet been
approved, arranged chronologically by session of Congress with an
indication as to which committee each has been referred.
20. Congressional Information Service.
CIS ANNUAL. -- (1970)- . Washington : Congressional
Information Service, 1970-
KF49.C62 MicRR / N&CPR
Available on CD-ROM in the Main Reading Room.
Annual with quinquennial cumulations.
Includes Senate executive reports and documents. The former, issued
by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, cover recommendations
concerning treaties and other agreements; the latter contain treaty
texts, plus information from the president and the secretary of
21. United States. Superintendent of Documents.
MONTHLY CATALOG OF UNITED STATES GOVERMENT PUBLICATIONS.
-- no.  (Jan. 1895)- . -- Washington : U.S. Govt.
Print. Off., 1895-
Z1223 .A18 MRR Alc / SciRR 1915- /N&CPR 1895-
New treaties are listed by TIAS number in the section for the state
department; languages of the text are indicated. Senate executive
documents and reports are listed in the section for the Senate. MRR
Alc holds issues for 1945 on.
III. TREATY INFORMATION SOURCES
22. United States. Dept. of State.
BULLETIN OF TREATY INFORMATION. -- no. [1 (Mar. 1929)]-
no. 7 (Sept. 1929). -- [Washington : Dept. of State],
23. United States. Dept. of State.
TREATY INFORMATION BULLETIN. -- no. 1 (Oct. 31, 1929)-
no.  (June 30, 1939]. -- Washington : U.S. Govt.
24. United States. Dept. of State.
THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN. -- Vol 1, no. 1 (July
1, 1939)-v. 89, no. 2153 (Dec. 1989).
Frequency varies: Monthly, Jan. 1978-1989 ; Weekly, July 1-Dec. 26,
Continues _Treaty Information Bulletin_.
Continued in part by: _Current Treaty Actions_, Jan.-July 1990;
continued by _US Department of State Dispatch_, Sept. 1990.
Contains recent information on treaty developments and may include
texts of important agreements. "Treaty Information" section
announces not only U.S. ratification after Senate approval and
president's signature, but also ratifications by foreign countries
of treaties to which the United States is a party.
25. US DEPARTMENT OF STATE DISPATCH / Bureau of Public
Affairs. -- Vol. 1, no. 1 (Sept. 3, 1990)- . --
Washington : Office of Public Communication, Bureau of
Public Affairs, 1990.
Continues _Department of State Bulletin_; absorbed and cumulates
_Current Treaty Actions_.
IV. INDIAN TREATIES
26. United States. Laws, statutes, etc.
INDIAN AFFAIRS : laws and treaties. Washington : U.S.
Govt. Print. Off., 1903-1941. -- 7 v.
KF8203 1903 MRR Alc
Includes laws, treaties, executive orders, etc., relating to
Indians from 1776 through June 1938. Vol. 2 covers treaties, 1778-
1883. Arrangement is chronological and an index is provided.
Cited as KAPPLER REPORT.
27. United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interior
and Insular Affairs.
LIST OF INDIAN TREATIES. -- Washington : U.S. Govt.
Print. Off., 1964.
KF8202 1964 LL
In four parts: a chronological list of treaties as of 1903; an
alphabetical list; a subject index to Vol. 2 of the Kappler report,
and selected references to Indian treaties. Also located in MRR
28. United States. National Archives.
LIST OF DOCUMENTS CONCERNING THE NEGOTIATION OF RATIFIED
INDIAN TREATIES, 1801-1869 / compiled by John H. Martin.
-- Washington : 1949. -- 177 p.
E95.U62 MRR Alc
Contains references to some material in the National Archives
dealing with ratified Indian treaties; each document is briefly
described. The arrangement is chronological.
29. Cohen, Felix S.
FELIX S. COHEN'S HANDBOOK OF FEDERAL INDIAN LAW. -- 1982
ed. / board of authors and editors, Rennard Strickland,
editor-in-chief. -- Charlottesville, Va. : Michie :
Bobbs-Merrill, c1982. -- xxviii, 912 p.
KF8205.C6 1982 LL
Chapter 3 covers Indian treaties. Texts of treaties are not
30. DePuy, Henry F.
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE ENGLISH COLONIAL TREATIES WITH THE
AMERICAN INDIANS: including a synopsis of each treaty. -
- New York: printed for the Lenox Club, 1917. -- p.
Reprinted in New York by AMS Press in 1971 (Z1209.2.U5 D44 1971).
Chronologically arranged, this work also gives the location of the
original text of the treaties when known.
31. EARLY AMERICAN INDIAN DOCUMENTS: treaties and laws,
1607-1789 / general editor, Alden T. Vaughan. --
Washington : University Publications of America, c1979-
. -- v. <1-2, 4-7, 11 >
KF8202 1979 LL
Contents: v.1. Pennsylvania and Delaware treaties, 1629-1737 /
edited by Donald H. Kent -- v. 2. Pennsylvania treaties, 1737-1756
/ edited by Donald H. Kent -- v. 4. Virginia treaties, 1607-1722 /
edited by W. Stitt Robinson -- v. 5. Virginia treaties, 1723-1775
/ edited by W. Stitt Robinson -- v. 6. Maryland treaties, 1762-1775
/ edited by W. Stitt Robinson -- v. 7. New York and New Jersey
treaties, 1609-1682 / edited by Barbara Graymont -- v. 11. Georgia
treaties, 1733-1763 / edited by John T. Juricek.
32. National Indian Law Library.
CATALOGUE: an index to Indian legal materials and
resources. -- Vol. 1 (1973/74)- . -- [Boulder, Colo.
: Native American Rights Fund], 1974-
KF8201.A1 N38 LL
Materials are listed by broad subject. There is a section on
treaties with the United States. Copies of items listed are
available from the publisher.
V. COMMERCIAL TREATIES
33. United States. Tariff Commission.
HANDBOOK OF COMMERCIAL TREATIES: digests of commercial
treaties, conventions, and other agreements of
commercial interest between all nations. -- Washington
: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1922. -- xiv, 899 p.
With few exceptions this covers only treaties in force. There is a
chronological listing. Digests of bilateral treaties are arranged
by country and those of multilateral treaties are arranged by
34. American Bar Association. Committee on Commercial
COMMERCIAL TREATY INDEX. -- 2nd ed. -- [Chicago] :
Section of International Law, American Bar Association,
JX236 1974 .A65 1974 LLRR
1 Vol. (loose-leaf).
An index of United States bilateral, nontariff commercial treaties.
Arrangement is geographical and then by subject within each
GLOSSARY OF TERMS*
DECLARATION - The title of a body of stipulations of a treaty
according to which the parties undertake to pursue in the future a
certain line of conduct.
EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS - International agreements entered into
between the executive departments of governments--often between the
heads of government--which do not require the concurrence of the
legislature. They are less formal than, and do not have the dignity
of, treaties. As a rule the subjects of executive agreements are of
less importance than those of treaties.
In the American system the two most important classes of executive
agreements are: 1) agreements made pursuant to authority contained
in acts of Congress, such as postal arrangements made with foreign
postal authorities and reciprocal tariff arrangements, and 2)
agreements entered into as purely executive acts without
legislative authorization, such as agreements relating to the
settlement of pecuniary claims of American citizens against foreign
The distinction between executive agreements and treaties is purely
a constitutional one and has no significance in international law.
PROTOCOL - One of the terms used to denote international
agreements. It is of a less formal and important nature than a
treaty. It is often used to supplement, amend, elucidate or qualify
a treaty; however, a number of very important international
agreements have been entered into in the form of protocol, e.g.,
the protocol signed at Geneva in 1920 establishing the Permanent
Court of International Justice.
RATIFICATION - The final confirmation by a state--usually performed
by its sovereign or president--of a treaty signed by its duly
authorized representative. Generally speaking, a treaty is not
binding unless and until it is ratified, although in the meanwhile,
it is not entirely devoid of certain effects. If ratification is
required and is refused, the treaty falls to the ground.
RESERVATION - A formal declaration by which a state, when signing,
ratifying, or acceding to treaty, specifies as a condition of its
willingness to become a part of the treaty certain terms which will
limit the effect of the treaty insofar as it may apply in the
relations of that state with the other state or states which may be
parties to the treaty.
TREATY - The Vienna Convention on the Law Treaties (1969) defines
as follows: "an international agreement concluded between states in
written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in
a single instrument or in two or more related instruments and
whatever its particular designation."
*Taken from: A Dictionary of international law and diplomacy /
Melquiades J. Gamboa. (Quezon City, Philippines. Central Lawbook
Pub. Co., . JX1226.G29 1973).
Additional General References
A MANUAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW. -- 6th ed. -- Milton [Eng.] :
Professional Books, 1976. -- lix, 612 p.
Whiteman, Marjorie M.
DIGEST OF INTERNATIONAL LAW. --[Washington] : U.S. Govt. Print.
Off., 1963-1973. -- 15 v.
JX237.W55 MRR Alc