In an attempt to find a solution to the so-called "Indian problem," policy-makers and missionaries in the late 1870s began to shift policy towards assimilation of Native Americans into mainstream American culture. Out of this policy came a massive growth of both on and off-reservation Indian Schools. Although praised by many Americans at the time, evidence of mismanagement and Native American protests against assimilation created a backlash that still exists today. Read more about it!
The information and sample article links below provide access to a sampling of articles from historic newspapers that can be found in the Chronicling America: American Historic Newspapers digital collection (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/). Use the Suggested Search Terms and Dates to explore this topic further in Chronicling America.
Jump to: Sample Articles
- 1879. First government-run, off-reservation boarding school, the Carlisle School in Pennsylvania, is opened.
- 1901. The Indian Bureau releases a book recommending a course of study that emphasizes "individualism and self-reliance."
- 1902. Superintendent of the Indian School at Chamberlain, South Dakota visits President Roosevelt to address Senate accusations of mismanagement and rampant disease amongst pupils.
- 1919. Chippewa publication condemns Indian Schools for providing a lower class education to students than public school.
- 1920. In New Mexico, it is reported that only 7,000 of the 25,581 Native Americans in the state are literate in English.
Suggested Search Strategies:
- [Try the following terms in combination, proximity, or as
phrases using Search
Pages in Chronicling America.] Indian schools, Indian education, Indian schools disease, Carlisle School, Ramona School
- It is important to use a specific date range if looking for articles for a particular event in order to narrow your results
Sample Articles from Chronicling America:
- "Needs of the Red Man,"
Saint Paul Globe (Saint Paul, MN), January 15, 1887, page 1, image 13, column 7.
- "Washington News and Gossip," Evening Star (Washington, DC), August 26, 1879, page 1, image 1, column 2.
- "Ramona's Children,"
Santa Fe Daily New Mexican (Santa Fe, NM), July 29, 1893, page 1, image 1, column 4.
- "The Indian Schools,"
Arizona Republican (Phoenix, AZ), December 10, 1901, page 10, image 10, column 2.
- "A Chapter on Indian Education,"
The Indian Advocate (Sacred Heart, OK), March 1, 1902, page 66, image 2, column 1.
- "The Charges Denied: Alleged Maladministration of Indian Schools,"
Evening Star (Washington, DC), March 3, 1902, page 6, image 6 column 4.
- "Educating the Indian,"
New York Tribune (New York, NY), December 7, 1902, page 14, image 40, column 1.
- "A Women's Work Among Red Men,"
Omaha Daily Bee (Omaha, NE) July 5, 1903, image 24, column 1.
- "Indians Who Refuse to be Civilized,"
Saint Paul Globe (Saint Paul, MN), December 20, 1903, page 38, image 38.
- "Indians No Like School,"
Webster City Freeman (Webster City, IA), August 8, 1911, page 6, image 6, column 4.
- "Indian Girls Root for Carlisle Heroes,"
The Day Book (Chicago, IL), November 13, 1911, image 19, column 1.
- "Uncle Sam's Indian Wards,"
The North Platte Semi-Weekly Tribune (North Platte, NE), February 25, 1916, image 6, column 1.
The Tomahawk (White Earth, MN), March 27, 1919, page 1, image 1, column 1.
- "Indian Schools of New Mexico Lack Capacity to Accommodate All Needing Education- Perry,"
Albuquerque Morning Journal (Albuquerque, NM), December 6, 1920, city edition, page 5, image 5, column 1.