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Topics in Chronicling America - Native American Education/Indian Schools

In an attempt to find a solution to the so-called "Indian problem," policy-makers and missionaries in the late 1870s began to shift policy towards assimilation of Native Americans into mainstream American culture. Out of this policy came a massive growth of both on and off-reservation Indian Schools. Although praised by many Americans at the time, evidence of mismanagement and Native American protests against assimilation created a backlash that still exists today. Read more about it!

The information and sample article links below provide access to a sampling of articles from historic newspapers that can be found in the Chronicling America: American Historic Newspapers digital collection ( Use the Suggested Search Terms and Dates to explore this topic further in Chronicling America.

Pupils at the Carlisle School

Jump to: Sample Articles

Important Dates:

  • 1879. First government-run, off-reservation boarding school, the Carlisle School in Pennsylvania, is opened.
  • 1901. The Indian Bureau releases a book recommending a course of study that emphasizes "individualism and self-reliance."
  • 1902. Superintendent of the Indian School at Chamberlain, South Dakota visits President Roosevelt to address Senate accusations of mismanagement and rampant disease amongst pupils.
  • 1919. Chippewa publication condemns Indian Schools for providing a lower class education to students than public school.
  • 1920. In New Mexico, it is reported that only 7,000 of the 25,581 Native Americans in the state are literate in English.

Suggested Search Strategies:

  • [Try the following terms in combination, proximity, or as phrases using Search Pages in Chronicling America.] Indian schools, Indian education, Indian schools disease, Carlisle School, Ramona School
  • It is important to use a specific date range if looking for articles for a particular event in order to narrow your results

Sample Articles from Chronicling America:

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  July 26, 2016
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