In the late 1880s, US government anxiety about the Native American Ghost Dance Movement prompted many crackdowns on large Native American gatherings. On December 29, 1890, tragedy occurred as US Army troops fired upon Native Americans at Wounded Knee creek on the Pine Ridge Reservation, leaving an estimated 200 people dead. The incident was controversially referred to initially as a “battle” and inspired conflict and backlash that would fuel later Native American movements. Read more about it!
The information and sample article links below provide access to a sampling of articles from historic newspapers that can be found in the Chronicling America: American Historic Newspapers digital collection (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/). Use the Suggested Search Terms and Dates to explore this topic further in Chronicling America.
Jump to: Sample Articles
- November 1890. US Troops move into Pine Ridge Reservation area due to concerns about the Ghost Dance movement.
- December 29, 1890. While disarming Native Americans, a skirmish breaks out. The US Army fires on the Native Americans, killing an estimated 200 Native Americans and wounding many more.
- January 1891. General Forsythe is removed from command over the incident, but is acquitted of wrongdoing and restored to command.
- June 1903. Native Americans build a monument at Wounded Knee to honor the dead.
- 1912. The previously accepted term “Battle of Wounded Knee” is changed to the “Wounded Knee Massacre” by some newspapers.
- 1914. A historical reenactment of Wounded Knee is filmed for a movie.
Suggested Search Strategies:
- [Try the following terms in combination, proximity, or as
phrases using Search
Pages in Chronicling America.] Battle of Wounded Knee, Wounded Knee Massacre, Ghost Dance Movement, General Forsythe
- It is important to use a specific date range if looking for articles for a particular event in order to narrow your results.
Sample Articles from Chronicling America:
- "More Serious- Indians Continue to Indulge in Ghost Dance,"
Daily Tobacco Leaf-Chronicle (Clarksville, TN), November 22, 1890, page 1, image 1, column 2.
- "No Trouble Yet,"
Bismarck Weekly Tribune (Bismarck, ND), November 28, 1890, page 1, image 1, column 5.
- "Heap Good Indians,"
Los Angeles Herald (Los Angeles, CA), December 31, 1890, page 1, image 1, column 1.
- "Conflict at Last,"
Bismarck Weekly Tribune (Bismarck, ND), January 2, 1891, page 1, image 1, column 1.
- "The Very Latest,"
Los Angeles Herald (Los Angeles, CA), January 6, 1891, page 1, image 1, column 1.
- "Indians in a Trap,"
Pittsburg Dispatch (Pittsburg, PA), January 8, 1891, page 1, image 1, column 5.
- "Pine Ridge,"
The Kinsley Graphic (Kinsley, KS), January 9, 1891, page 2, image 2, column 1.
- "He Gets the Indians,"
The Dalles Weekly Chronicle (Dalles, OR), January 9, 1891, page 2, image 2, column 4.
- "Battle of Wounded Knee,"
The Record-Union (Sacramento, CA), February 13, 1891, page 1, image 1, column 1.
- "Indians Erect and Dedicate a Monument,"
The Minneapolis Journal (Minneapolis, MN), June 6, 1903, page 11, image 11, column 1.
- "An Indian Memorial,"
Chicago Eagle (Chicago, IL), July 18, 1903, page 7, image 7, column 1.
- "When We Made War Upon the Women:" Tales of the Battle of Wounded Knee,"
The Washington Herald (Washington, DC), April 21, 1912, society section, image 26, column 5.
- "Reproducing History As It Happened at Wounded Knee,"
The Sun (New York, NY), February 1, 1914, page 6, image 34, column 1.
- "General Nelson A. Miles, of U.S. Army, Tells About Last Indian Uprising,"
The Farmer and Mechanic (Raleigh, NC), April 28, 1914, page 15, image 15, column 3.