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West Nile Virus
Science Reference Guide

Science Reference Section
Science, Technology and Business Division
Library of Congress


Mostquitos and West Nile Virus.

Photo credits: Centers for
Disease Control Web site.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
West Nile Virus Home Page

West Nile Virus Fact Sheet

Questions & Answers (Can my pets get it? Should I report a dead bird?)

Maps and Data

Entomology: Which mosquito species carry WNV?

Vertebrate Ecology: Which bird species carry WNV?

Links to Related Sites (Federal, State & Local, Academic, Professional, Non- governmental, International)

MedlinePlus (Overviews, Latest News, Research, etc., from the National Library of Medicine)

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Mosquito Quiz



Christopher, Dean. 20 things you didn’t know about...mosquitoes. Discover magazine, v. 28, no. 8, August 2007: 80.
   Find online–go to URL:

Hall, Stephen S. On the trail of the West Nile virus. Smithsonian magazine, v. 14, no. 4, July 2003: 88-102.
   Direct link online-URL:

Kilpatrick, A. Marm, and others. West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior. PloS biology, v. 4, April 2006: 0606-0610.
   Find online–go to URL:

Soverow, Jonathan E., and others. Infectious disease in a warming world: how weather influenced West Nile virus in the United States (2001-2005). Environmental health perspectives, v. 117, no. 7, July 2009: 1049-1052.
   Find online–go to URL:



Despommier, Dickson. West Nile story: a new virus in the New World. New York, Apple Trees Productions, c2001. 134 p.
   Bibliography: p.106-113.
   RA644.W47D47 2001

Sfakianos, Jeffrey N. West Nile virus. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Chelsea House Publishers, c2009. 108 p.
   Series: Deadly diseases and epidemics (juvenile literature).
   Bibliography: p. 98-102.
   RA644.W47S46 2009

West Nile encephalitis virus infection: viral pathogenesis and the host immune response. Edited by Michael S. Diamond. New York, Springer, c2009. 485 p.
   Series: Emerging infectious diseases of the 21st century.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA644.W47W474 2009

Zimmer, Carl. A planet of viruses. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, c2011. 109 p.
   See: Becoming an American: West Nile virus. p. 65-70.
   Bibliography: p. 97-101.
   QR360.Z65 2011
Essay reprinted in the online Discover magazine’s blog by Zimmer, “The Loom.” URL:


A mosquito, as seen from above.A dorsal view of a Culex pipiens mosquito

The C. pipiens mosquito is a known vector for the West Nile flavivirus. When a person is infected with West Nile virus, the most serious form of the ensuing illness is termed “neuroinvasive disease”, because it affects a person’s nervous system. Specific types of neuroinvasive disease include West Nile encephalitis, West Nile meningitis, or West Nile meningoencephalitis. Encephalitis refers to an inflammation of the brain; meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord; meningoencephalitis refers to an inflammation of both the brain, spinal cord, as well as the membranes surrounding these structures. Credit: Credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website.


Compiled by Stephanie Marcus
August 2012

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