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Battle of the Centuries

Compiled by Ruth Freitag, Senior Science Specialist

Table of Contents

Press Release: New LC Bibliography Offers Guide to Centurial Feud

When does the century end? This simple question has such a simple answer that the very existence of a dispute is puzzling. As the superintendent of the U.S. Naval Observatory remarked nearly 100 years ago, "There can be no question of 'opinion' as to the date of the commencement of the twentieth century any more than there can be a question of opinion on any other simple arithmetical fact." Yet many find the truth of the matter so unacceptable that the resulting controversy has generated a considerable literature.

A chronological guide to such writings was recently published by the Library of Congress. The Battle of the Centuries, a list of references compiled by Ruth S. Freitag, a staff member of the Science and Technology division, cites more than 200 pamphlets and articles in periodicals and newspapers, beginning at the close of the 17th century, that relate to the conflict.

these references are enlivened by many quotations from some of the more spirited disputants who wrote a century ago. Several of them foresaw that the struggle would be renewed at the approach of the year 2000, and that their "great grandchildren...will consult the files of the Times...for arguments to show that 1999 years make up 20 centuries."

However, as a more recent writer has noted, "the world has voted with its cheque book in the debate, "and indeed many elaborate plans have already been made to usher in the 21st century and the third millenium--a year early. Those who call attention to the error are ignored, if not ridiculed. As a consolation, the chairman of the Arts Council in Britian pointed out in 1990 that "you can just have a celebration both years."

The cover of the 57-page pamphlet shows Father Time pondering the dividing point between the 19th and 20th centuries.

From the Library of Congress FTP site the bibliography is available in ASCII text (battle.centuries.txt) and Word Perfect 5.1 (battle.centuries.wp).

The bibliography is also available for $2.75 from the Superintendent of Documents, PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250- 7954. Cite stock no. 030-001-00153-9.

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When the encyclopedia of human folly comes to be written, a page must be reserved for the minor imbecility of the battle of the centuries--the clamorous dispute as to when a century ends. The present bibliography documents the controversy as it has arisen at the end of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, as well as a few skirmishes in the quarrel that has begun to develop with the approach of the third millennium.

The source of the confusion is easy to discern; ever since learning how to write, we have dated our documents with year designations beginning with the digits 19. Obviously, when we must begin to date them starting with 20, we have embarked on a new century! Haven't we? The answer is no, we have not; we have merely arrived at the last year of the 20th century. As historians and others involved in measuring time continue to remind us, there was no year 0. In fact, there has never been a system of recording reigns, dynasties, or eras that did not designate its first year as the year 1. To complete a century, one must complete 100 years; the first century of our era ran from the beginning of A.D. 1 to the end of A.D. 100; the second century began with the year A.D. 101.

While the period 1900-1999 is of course a century, as is any period of 100 years, it is incorrect to label it the 20th century, which began January 1, 1901, and will end on December 31, 2000. Only then will the third millennium of our era begin.

Those who are unwilling to accept the clarity of simple arithmetic in this matter and who feel strongly that there is something amiss with the result have developed some impressively convoluted arguments to promote their point of view. Baron Hobhouse, studying some of these arguments as set forth in letters published in the Times of London during the first few days of January 1900, found "that many of the reasons assigned are irrelevant, many are destructive of the conclusion in support of which they are advanced, and that such as would be relevant and logical have no basis whatever to maintain them in point of fact." He was one of several observers of the fray at the end of the 19th century who predicted that the foolishness would recur with the advent of the year 2000, as people began to look for ways of demonstrating "that 1999 years make up 20 centuries."

As a writer stated in the January 13, 1900, Scientific American, "It is a venerable error, long-lived and perhaps immortal." The shortness of human life is also a factor; as a century approaches its end, hardly anyone who experienced the previous conflict is still living, so we are doomed to undergo another round.

Astronomers have been blamed for some of the confusion by their adoption of a chronology that designates the year 1 B.C. as 0 and gives the preceding years negative numbers, e.g., 2 B.C. becomes -1, 3 B.C. becomes -2, etc. This system permits them to simplify calculations of recurring astronomical events that cross the starting point of our era, such as series of solar eclipses and the apparitions of periodic comets. However, this scheme affects only the years preceding A.D. 1 and cannot be used as a justification for ending subsequent centuries with the 99th year.

Some argue that Dionysius Exiguus made a mistake in his determination of the year of Christ's birth when he devised our present chronology in the sixth century, and that the discrepancy allows us to celebrate the end of a century a year early. However, even though the starting point of our era may not correspond to the chronologist's intention, it is still the point from which we count our centuries--each of which still requires 100 years for completion.

Nevertheless, as many of the entries in this list (from p. 45 on) will indicate, plans to celebrate the opening of the 21st century and the third millennium at midnight on December 31, 1999, have become so widespread that anyone who tries to call attention to the error is disparaged as a pedant and ignored. Perhaps the only consolation for those intending to observe the correct date is that hotels, cruise ships, supersonic aircraft, and other facilities may be less crowded at the end of the year 2000.

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Arrangement and Indexing of Entries and Location of Publications

The arrangement of entries is chronological. All personal and corporate names, pseudonyms, and initialisms have been indexed, along with a small number of topics (e.g., Dictionary definitions, Zero year).

Library of Congress call numbers are given for materials in the general collections, and symbols indicate the location of items that can be seen in the Microform Reading Room (MicRR) or the Newspaper and Current Periodical Room (N&CPR;). Shelfmarks for works held by the British Library (London) and the Bibliotheque nationale (Paris), as well as locations in a few other European libraries, are indicated in notes.

The National Union Catalog symbols listed below have been used to show the location of a few publications in other U.S. libraries.

DN--Ob: U.S. Naval Observatory Library, Washington, D.C.
NN: New York Public Library
WU: University of Wisconsin, Madison

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Song for the Year 1900

Come, New Year, a welcome guest,
Fill with hope each anxious breast,
Whom the sad old ninety-nine
(Every rosy promise breaking,)
Left in its ill-starred decline
Disillusioned, scarred and aching;
Come! a new and healing balm
Spread around of peace and calm.

Give glad Springtime once again,
With the song-birds' merry strain;
Let her bring us flowery May,
Then give place to radiant Summer,
With red roses and sweet hay
(Though, alas! the birds are dumber).
Then proud Autumn give once more,
Rich with ripe and golden store.

So your course we now forecast,
And, when you retire at last,--
All your promises proved vain,
Curst, discredited, detected,--
We those pleasures yet again,
Which in you we once expected,
Credulous will hope to see
In another century. A. J. C.
Punch, Jan. 3, 1900

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End of the Seventeenth Century


Le Lorrain de Vallemont, abbe Pierre.  Extrait d'une letre de Monsieur de

  Vallemont Docteur en Theologie, a Monsieur Delpech Conseiller au

  Parlement de Paris; sur la question:  Si l'an 1700. finit le XVII. Siecle,

  qui court; ou s'il commence le Siecle suivant.  Journal des scavans, t. 25,

  4 mars 1697: 155-161.                    AP25.J7, v. 25

     Favors the view that the year 1700 will begin the new century, citing

  a number of ecclesiastical authorities in support, but points out that,

  among others, the members of the Academie Francaise are of the

  opposite opinion, having included in the definition of the word siecle in

  their dictionary the statement "Le Siecle qui court, a comence au premier

  jour de l'an 1601."


Weigel, Erhard.  Entwurff der Conciliation dess alten und neuen Calender-

  Styli, welchergestalt solche im Nov. Anno 1699. anzustellen ist, und

  hierauf im folgenden Monat, und neuem Seculo, der neue conciliirte

  Stylus in bestandiger Harmonie, fortwahren kan.  Nebst einer kurtzen

  hierzu diensamen Instruction.  Regenspurg, Gedruckt bey J. G. Hofmann

  [1698]  8 p.

------ Fruhlings-Quartal des 1699sten Jahrs, zur Vorbereitung, auf das neue

  Seculum MDCC, handelt von den Wurckungs-Arten menschlichen

  Gemuthes, womit mehrere Kunst- und Tugend-Wurckungs-Vorthl zu

  erforschen und zu finden.  Jena, Zu finden bey J. Bielcken [1699]  24 p.

------ Quartalische Vorbereitung, am Ende des mit dem 1699sten Jahr

  ablauffenden Siebenzenden Seculi nach Christi Geburth, zum neuen, mit

  dem 1700.  Jahr instehenden, Gott geb Gluck- und Segensvollen,

  Achtzehenden Seculo.  Jn demselbigen wo moglich, mehrere Kunst- und

  Tugend-Wurckungs-Vorthl, durch freundliche Communication auch mit

  den Teutschen Maas- und Weiss Liebhabern, zu erforschen.  Jena, Zu

  finden bey J. Bielcken [1699]  20 p.

     Although these three publications do not appear to include discussion

  of the dividing point between centuries, the titles indicate the author's

  belief that the 99th, rather than the 100th, year marks the century's end.

     The pamphlets are held by the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich; 

  for shelfmarks, see its Alphabetischer Katalog,  1501-1840, v. 58

  (Munchen, New York, K. G. Saur, 1990).


Becker, Peter.  Exercitatio historico-chronologica qua investigaturis seculi

  praesentis decimi septimi finem, rationibus firmis demonstratur: Annum,

  quem stylo usitatissimo inscribimus millesimum septingentesimum ... re

  vera esse seculi XVII. finem.  Rostochii, Richelius, 1699.  12 leaves.


Critique sur la dissertation du siecle prochain et sur la critique de M. ***,

  bachelier en theologie.  Paris, J. Musier, 1699.

     Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark V. 29420.


Delaisement,  M.  Dissertation sur le commencement du siecle prochain, et

  la solution du probleme, scavoir laquelle des deux annees 1700 ou 1701

  est la premiere du siecle.  A Paris, J. Moreau, M. DC. XCIX.  19 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (1.).

     "... 1700 est la derniere annee du Siecle present, & 1701 la premiere

  du Siecle suivant."

------ A dissertation upon the beginning of the next century:  and the

  solution of the problem; to know which of the two years 1700 or 1701

  is the first of the next century?  With some considerations about the

  observation of the year of Jubilee.  Translated out of French.  London,

  J. Nutt, MDCXCIX.  30 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8560. c. 42.

     Includes, on p. 15-30, "A Critical letter, from M---- Batchelor in

  Divinity, to the author of the Dissertation upon the beginning of the next

  century.  With an answer to the said letter."


La Fin du siecle.  Par un anticritique malgre luy, pour repondre a plusieurs

  dissertations contraires qui ont paru depuis cinq ou six mois.  A Limoges,

  1699.  104 p.

     Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark G. 11502.


Juni, Ulrich.  Anmerkungen uber das unpartheyische Bedenken von Prof.

  Weigelii proponirter Calender-Conciliation, nebst eine Beantwortung

  derselben.  [Leipzig?] 1699.

     According to Houzeau and Lancaster's Bibliographie generale de

  l'astronomie, this deals with the question of which year would be the

  first of the 18th century.


Juni, Ulrich.  Untersuchung der Streitfrage ob 1700 oder 1701 fur das erste

  Jahr des kunftigen Seculi zu halten seye.  [Leipzig?] 1699.


Lettre a un gentil-homme de province sur la question du tems:  quelle est la

  derniere annee de ce siecle, ou 1699 ou 1700?  Paris, M. Brunet [1699]

     Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark V. 29422.


Lettre critique de M.***, bachelier en theologie, a l'auteur de la

  Dissertation, sur le commencement du siecle prochain.  Avec la reponse

  a la mesme lettre.   A Paris,  J.  Moreau,  M. DC. XCIX.  28 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (5.).  The

  Reponse is by M. Delaisement.

     See note to entry 5 for English translation.


Mallemans de Messanges, Claude.  La question decidee sur le sujet de la fin

  du siecle, si l'annee 1700 est la derniere du dix-septieme siecle ou la

  premiere du dix-huit.  Paris, J. Moreau, 1699.  55 p.

     Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmarks V.

  29424 and Res. G. 2112.

     Reviewed in Journal des savans, t. 27, 15. juin 1699, p. 430-432

  (AP25.J7, v. 27).


Nouvelle dissertation sur le siecle prochain, ou l'on fait voir que l'annee

  1700 est la premiere du siecle.  Par M.... D. Avocat en Parlement.  A

  Paris, J. Moreau, 1699.  21 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (2.).


La Querelle des auteurs sur le commencement du siecle prochain.  A Paris,

  J. Moreau, M. DC. XCIX.  33 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (3.).

     Presented in the form of five conversations.  "De tout ce qui est dit

  cy-dessus, on peut conclure que ceux qui soutiennent que l'annee 1701

  est la premiere du siecle prochain, ont pris le party de la verite."


Replique a La querelle des auteurs sur le commencement du siecle prochain. 

  [A Paris, J. Moreau, 1699]  26 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (4.).

     Argues the case for 1700 as the first year of the 18th century.


Reponse a la dissertation sur le commencement du siecle prochain, si c'est

  l'an 1700 ou 1701 qui sera le premier du siecle.  Paris, J. B. Coignard,


     Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark Vz. 2216.


Abicht, Johann G.  Annus MDCC ex hypothesi vulgari seculi XVII ultimus

  et ex hypothesi scaligeri seculi XVIII secundus disputationi priori pro

  loco in ... facultate philosophica obtinendo demonstratus, eruditorum

  examini proponitur a M. Joh. Georg. Abicht.  Lipsiae, Typis J. C.

  Brandenburgeri [1700]  16 p.

     Held by the Biblioteca nazionale centrale in Rome.


[Bagelaar, Jan]  Aanmerking op de gedagten van F. Halma, over het begin

  der 18e eeuw.  Amsterdam, P. Sceperus, 1700.  8 p.

     Held by the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, in its pamphlet



Halma, Francois.  Brief aan den H. M. van Nispen ... waar in het verschil

  over 't einde der 17 en 't begin der 18de eeuw nader ter toetse komt. 

  Amsterdam, 1700.  92 p.


Jens, Petrus.  Ondersoek der bewysen van F. Halma, wegens het geschil der

  nieuwe eeuw.  Nevens een korte betooning na de manier der wiskonst

  voorgesteld.  Waer mede uyt de gewoonte van all volkeren, koningen,

  tydschryvers, etc. bewese werd, dat dit loopende jaer het laetste jaer der

  seventiende eeuw is.  In 'sGravenhage, By M. Uytwerf, 1700.  16 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark T. 1715.  (11.).


Lettera scritta a Carlo Cesare Scaletti patrizio faentino intorno alle

  controversie, o equivoci, che si sono presi da qualcheduno, che l'anno M.

  DCC non sia l'ultimo, ma il primo dal secolo.  In Bologna, Per gli eredi

  Pisarri, 1700.  12 p.

     Signed F. F. O. D. O. I.


Ludolf, Hiob, the younger.  Widerlegung der von einem Anonymo so

  intitulirten und in Utopia gedruckten, grundlichen und genauen

  Untersuchung vom Anfange des herannahenden Jahrhunderts.  Jena,



Nispen, C. van.  Over het begin der XVIIIe eeuwe.  Dordrecht, 1700.


Rabus, Petrus.  Over het begin der eeuwe.  Rotterdam, 1700.


Rondelli, Geminiano.  Urania custode del tempo.  Varie considerazioni ...

  intorno al computo, e denominazione degli anni, con le quali resta

  determinato, l'anno corrente essere l'ultimo del secolo decimo-settimo

  dell'epoca Cristiana, e non il primo del secolo decimo-ottavo.  In

  Bologna, Per gli eredi Pisarri, MDCC.  45 p.

     Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark 4o V.

  Piece.  928.


Cordatus, Sincerus.  Neu-Jahrs-Gedanken, zugleich auff den Anfang dieses

  neuangehenden Seculi gerichtet.  Leipzig, 1701.


Moller, Daniel W.  Disputatio de saeculo.  Altdorfii, 1701.

     On the controversy over the first year of the 18th century.


Risposta ad una dama in vantaggio di chi tiene l'anno M.DCC. per lo primo,

  e non per l'ultimo del secolo.  In Bologna, Per il Pisarri, M DCCI.  55


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End of the Eighteenth Century


Dissertations on the commencement of the next century.  Gentleman's

  magazine, v. 68, May 1798: 401.           AP4.G3, v. 68

     Two letters on the controversy.  The first, dated Mar. 13 and signed

  "A Constant Reader," submits two simple methods of showing "that the

  XIXth century commences the 1st of Jan. 1801."  The second, dated

  Wooler, Mar. 21, and signed N. G.," argues for the opposing view.


Conclusion of the century.  Gentleman's magazine, v. 68, June 1798:

  468-469.                                  AP4.G3, v. 68

     A letter dated June 4 and signed "B. S." repudiates the arguments of

  N. G. in the previous issue.


End of century?  Gentleman's magazine, v. 68, June 1798: 493-494.

                                            AP4.G3, v. 68

     A letter dated June 12 and signed "C. N." supports N. G. and points

  out that "the Astronomer Royal and Dr. Herschel, the two greatest living

  authorities, are of opinion that the next century will commence with the

  year 1800 ..."


The Commencement of the nineteenth century elucidated.  Gentleman's

  magazine, v. 68, July 1798: 573-578.      AP4.G3, v. 68

     Three letters arguing at varying lengths in favor of 1800 as the first

  year of the new century.  The first, dated Gray's-inn-square, July 10th,

  is signed "C. Sh."; the second, dated July 9, is signed "C. N."; and the

  third, dated July 16, is signed "G. W."


Conclusion of the century.  Gentleman's magazine, v. 68, Aug. 1798:

  676-682.                                  AP4.G3, v. 68

     Seven letters, all supporting 1801 as the first year of the 19th century. 

  The first letter, dated Aug. 8, is signed "R. E. R."; the second, Aug. 7,

  is signed "Omicron"; the third, dated L. Horsley, Aug. 13, is signed "R.

  O."; the fourth, Aug. 13, is signed "Pythagoras"; the fifth,  Aug. 19,  is

  signed "D. C.";  the sixth,  Aug. 20, is signed "R. C."; and the last, Aug.

  21, is signed "R. W."  A note from the editor on p. 682 expresses a vain

  hope that the controversy "is now completely and clearly settled."  In the

  September issue, however, on p. 791, there is a paragraph indicating that

  both factions have continued their epistolary outpourings.  The editor

  briefly describes but declines to print contributions received from C. N.,

  C. Sh., B. S., N. J., M. S. F. A., and A. R.


Burja, Abel.  Werther und Werner.  Ein Gesprach uber die Frage:  ob das

  neue Jahrhundert mit dem Jahre 1800 oder mit 1801 anfangt?  Berlin,

  Bei C. F. Schone, 1799.  48 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8562. aaa. 34.

     Werner explains to Werther why the new century begins with the year



Cantzlaar, Jan.  Voorstelling dat het jaar 1800, (en niet het jaar 1801) het

  begin der negentiende eeuw is of moet zijn.  Met de voornaamste

  bewijzen, die daar voor kunnen worden bygebragt.  Rotterdam, N.

  Cornel, 1799.  20 p.


Monnich, Bernhard F.  Auch eine Antwort auf die Frage:  ist das Jahr 1800

  das letzte im 18ten oder das erste im 19ten Jahrhundert.  Berlin, Reimer,



Ueber die Frage:  ist das laufende Seculum mit dem 31ten December 1799.,

  oder 1800. vollendet?  Neues Hannoverisches Magazin, 9. Jahrg., 15. 

  Apr. 1799: columns 481-496.              AP30.H24, v. 9

     Signed N.

     Refers to the publication in an unspecified 1798 issue of the

  Gentleman's Magazine of the view that the century will end on Dec. 31,

  1799, and explains at considerable length why this cannot be so.  He

  dismisses the notion of a zero year as an English whim and cites the

  Aug. 1798 issue of the magazine (entry 32) as a source of additional

  adverse criticism of the idea.


Wann fangt das XIX. Jahrhundert an?  Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, 1.

  Jahrg., 18. Sept. 1799: columns 857-862.  music.

                                            ML5.A43, v. 1

     An effort--admittedly unsuccessful--to demonstrate the correct starting

  date of the 19th century by means of a musical canon or round song.

     Comments on this essay by Otto Schmid-Dresden, accompanied by

  the music, appear as "Wann fangt das neue Jahrhundert an?" in Blatter

  fur Haus- und Kirchenmusik, 4. Jahrg., Feb. 1900, p. 27-28 (ML5.B6, v.



The Eighteenth century.  Gentleman's magazine, v. 69, 1799, suppl.:

  1176.                                     AP4.G3, v. 69

     Three letters on the controversy, all dated Dec. 31.  The first, from

  Camberwell and signed "D.," wonders why, if 1800 years have passed,

  the date 1800 is to be used for the coming 12 months.  The second, from

  "A School boy," concludes that "1800 must be the last number of an

  eighteenth series, and also of the eighteenth century."  The last, signed

  "De Willowby," presents a short humorous poem involving confusion

  between the words "century" and "sentry."


Etwas uber die Frage:  wenn endiget sich unser jetziges Saculum?  Neues

  Hannoverisches Magazin, 9. Jahrg., 16. Dec. 1799: columns

  1605-1611.               AP30.H24, v. 9  Rare Bk. Coll.

     Signed P. H.

     Argues that the century will have completed its course on Jan. 1,



The Next century.  Times (London), Dec. 26, 1799: 4.N&CPR

     "We have uniformly rejected all letters, and declined all discussion

  upon the question of when the present century ends? as it is one of the

  most absurd that can engage the public attention, and we are astonished

  to find it has been the subject of so much dispute, since it appears to be

  perfectly plain.  The present century will not terminate till January 1,

  1801, unless it can be made out that 99 are 100.  Eighteen centuries are

  1800 years, then how can 18 centuries be completed till the year 1800

  has expired?  What is the meaning of a century, but a clear distinct series

  of 100 years?  How can 100 be completed by 99? ... We shall not pursue

  this question further, nor should we now have said so much upon it, had

  not several applications been made for our opinion.  It is a silly, childish

  discussion, and only exposes the want of brains of those who maintain

  a contrary opinion to that we have stated ..."


Ophelderende aanmerkingen over het einde der 18de eeuw.  Nieuwe

  algemene konst- en letter-bode, 12. deel, 27 dec. 1799: 202-205.

                                            AP15.A5, 1799

     Includes discussion of Cantzlaar's 1799 pamphlet (entry 34).  

     See also the short note, "Historische en Letterkundige Anecdotes," in

  13. deel, 17 jan. 1800, p. 22, about a German satirical medal relating to

  the dispute over the end of the 17th century, and "Pieter Leefgraag en

  Heintje-Maat,"  in the issue of 28  feb.  1800, p. 68-71, a story

  (translated from the German by J. G. Busch) that turns on the wish of an

  ailing man to survive until the beginning of the 19th century.


Cantzlaar, Jan.  De tyd- en eeuw-onderzoeker, voor het jaar 1800. 

  Bevattende de ontwikkeling der gronden en bewyzen van de

  sterrekundigen, omtrent de stelling dat het jaar 1800. na de geboorte J.

  C. het eerste jaar der negentiende eeuw is.  no. 1-12.  Te Rotterdam, N.

  Cornel, 1800.  98 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 1609/3323.


Darragon, Francois L.  L'anti-Lalende [sic]; ou, Refutation de la lettre du

  celebre astronome Lalende.  [Paris, De l'Impr. de Gauthier, 1800]  11 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark R. 404. (4.).

     The text of Lalande's letter as published in Le Bien-informe, 23

  nivose, an 8 (Jan. 13, 1800), clearly stating that the year 1800 belongs

  to the 18th century, is included.  The refutation consists more of abuse

  than argument.


Gelder, Jacob de.  Geschied- en wiskundige verhandeling over het verschil

  wegens het slot-jaar der XVIII. eeuw.  's Hage, J. J. Stuerman, 1800. 

  120 p.


Hindenburg, Karl F.  Beantwortung der Frage, ob das neunzehnde

  Jahrhundert mit dem ersten Januar 1800, oder mit dem ersten Januar

  1801 anfange.  Leipzig, 1800.


Korte wysgeerige verhandeling over de gemeene christelijke jaartelling,

  waarin bewezen wordt, dat de negentiende eeuw dezer jaartelling eerst

  begint met de 1 January 1801.  Rotterdam, 1800.

     By P. P. R. P.


Mackay, Andrew.  The commencement of the nineteenth century,

  determined upon unerring principles.  Aberdeen, 1800.  62 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmarks 531. 1. 17. (3.) and T.

  934. (5.).

     "That the end of the year commonly denominated 1799, is the

  termination of the eighteenth century; and, therefore, the beginning of the

  year marked 1800, the commencement of the nineteenth century; the

  author of this tract cannot entertain, even, a doubt.  And that the

  celebrated Drs. Maskelyne and Herschel, and the very learned M. de la

  Lande, as well as every other practical astronomer, are of the same

  opinion, is only what he could have expected:  and he flatters himself the

  following arguments will be convincing to at least some, if not to all, of

  those who are still on the opposite side of the question."


Das merkwurdige Jahr 1800; oder, Erlauterung uber den Streit des Anfangs

  vom 19ten Jahrhundert.  Lobenstein, Ilgen, 1800.


Pye, Henry J.  Carmen seculare for the year 1800.  London, Printed for J.

  Wright, Piccadilly, by W. Bulmer, Russel-Court, Cleveland-Row, St.

  James's, 1800.  43 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 1346. i. 11.

     In an introduction, the Poet Laureate gives his reasons for concluding

  that the new century begins Jan. 1, 1800.

     These remarks are quoted at length in a review published in the

  Gentleman's Magazine, v. 70, Jan. 1800, p. 64-66 (AP4.G3, v. 70).  The

  reviewer comments, "The worthy Laureat has certainly got into a scrape;

  and we wish him well out of it:  but we have stated his arguments fairly;

  though not convinced by an iota of the statement that 99 can make 100."

     See also the letter from A. D. in the Feb. 1800 issue of the

  Gentleman's Magazine, p. 134, showing that the poet's view is in error.


End of the century; termination of the century clearly ascertained. 

  Gentleman's magazine, v. 70, Feb. 1800: 132-134.AP4.G3, v. 70

     Signed R. C.

     See also the brief item in the Apr. 1800 issue, p. 381, referring to

  disputes in France about the end of the 18th century and quoting Lalande

  as stating that "the year 1800 incontestibly belongs to the 18th, or old



Lofft, Capel.  On the question of the century.  Monthly mirror, v. 9, Feb.

  1800: 83-88.                              AP4.M83, v. 9

     Calls attention to a statement in the preface to v. 9, included with the

  Jan. 1800 issue--"we, therefore, commence a new year, a new volume,

  and, if the chronologists will give us leave, a new century"-- and explains

  why he thinks the new century will not begin until Jan. 1, 1801.


Observations on Mr. Pye's preface to his ode for the new century.  Monthly

  mirror, v. 9, Mar. 1800: 148-150.         AP4.M83, v. 9

     Contests the arguments used by the poet to support his view that the

  19th century began Jan. 1, 1800.


A New chapter of chronicles.  Monthly mirror, v. 9, Apr. 1800: 201-203.AP4.M83, v. 9

     A satire on the battle of the centuries, presented as a dispute between

  two brothers named Cutshort and Fivescore.


Lardner, Dionysius.  [When a century ends]  In his  The museum of science

  & art.  v. 7.  London, Walton and Maberly, 1855.  p. 6-7.

                                          Q171.L297, v. 7

     "... it is notorious that after the year 1800, questions were constantly

  raised in society as to whether such or such a day or month belonged to

  the eighteenth century or to the nineteenth."  Shows that the year 100

  belonged to the first century, and, similarly, 1800 to the 18th, and 1900

  to the 19th, century.


When a century ends.  Historical magazine, v. 2, Jan. 1858: 12-13.

                                           E171.H64, v. 2

     Quotes a letter written Jan. 23, 1799, by President Timothy Dwight

  of Yale, responding to a query about the end of the 18th century.  In his

  view, this would not occur until the termination of the year 1800.


Quand a fini le XVIIIe siecle?  Quand a commence le XIXe? 

  L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et curieux, 6. annee, 25 janv., 25 fev.

  1870: columns 38-39, 111-114.            AG309.I6, v. 6

     The question is raised by A. Resol, who quotes contradictory views. 

  Responses are supplied by six correspondents, all of whom are agreed

  that the 19th century began with the year 1801.


Walford, E.  The last and present centuries.  Notes and queries, 5th ser., v.

  11, June 21, 1879: 486.           AG305.N7, s. 5, v. 11

     Calls attention to an obituary in the Times in which the year 1800 is

  erroneously referred to as "the first year of the present century."

Top of Page

End of the Nineteenth Century


Quand le siecle finit-il?  L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et curieux, 15.

  annee, 25 dec. 1882: column 737; 16. annee, 10-25 janv., 10 mars 1883:

  columns 25-26, 58-59, 147-148; 17. annee, 10 fev. 1884: column 75;

  24. annee, 25 janv., 25 mars-10 avril, 10 juil. 1891: columns 35-36,

  190-191, 204-205, 499-500.       AG309.I6, v. 15-17, 24

     The question, raised by J. Camus in 1882 and by E. M. in 1891,

  produced a total of 15 responses, all clearly indicating that 1900 is the

  last year of the 19th century.


When does the century begin?  Notes and queries, 7th ser., v. 10, Sept. 20,

  1890: 225.                        AG305.N7, s. 7, v. 10

     "G. F. R. B." cites Thomas Holcroft's Memoirs (London, Longman,

  Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1816) which records a discussion on this

  subject that took place at a dinner on July 9, 1798.


Walford, E.  The last decade of this century.  Notes and queries, 7th ser., v.

  11, Jan. 24, 1891: 64.                 MicRR (o) 85/144

     "... the twentieth century will begin not, as supposed, in January,

  1900, but in January, 1901."


Premiere annee d'un siecle.  L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et curieux, v.

  33, 20 mars, 10 juin 1896: columns 331, 669-671; v. 34, 20 aout:

  columns 220-221; v. 35, 10 janv., 20 avril, 20 mai 1897: columns 15-16,

  491-492, 632; v. 36, 20 juil., 30 sept.: columns 57-58, 396.

                                       AG309.I6, v. 33-36

     The question as originally raised by Verepius concerned the truth of

  an assertion to the effect that the first year of a century can never begin

  on a Wednesday, a Friday, or a Sunday.  This turns out to be correct for

  the Gregorian calendar (though not for the Julian), but the responses soon

  reverted to the old dispute concerning the dividing point between

  centuries.  Includes mention of some well-known figures (e.g., Goethe

  and Victor Hugo) who were among those confused by the problem.


Is the end of the present century to be expected on January 1st, 1900, or

  January 1st, 1901?  Science siftings, v. 10, Sept. 19, 1896: 355.

                                             Q1.S8, v. 10

     "... the twentieth century will begin on the morning of January 1st.,


     In answer to another inquiry, this response was substantially repeated

  in v. 14, Aug. 27, 1898, p. 278.


Foerster, Wilhelm J.  Das neue Jahrhundert und der Kalender.  Mit einem

  Schlusswort uber das Osterfest.  Westermanns illustrierte deutsche

  Monatshefte, 85. Bd., Okt. 1898: 135-144.

                                           AP30.W5, v. 85

     Includes some discussion of the controversy over the new century's

  beginning date, which the author states to be Jan. 1, 1901.


Pietzker, Friedrich.  Das Jahr "Null."  Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift,

  13. Bd., 2. Okt. 1898: 472-474.            Q3.N9, v. 13

     After stating that the year 1900 clearly belongs (and gives its name

  to) the 19th century, the writer considers proposals to insert a year 0 in

  the accepted chronology, as astronomers have done for some time.  He

  concludes that such a step is not justifiable.


Equilibrium, pseud.  When will the XIXth century end; and the XXth begin? 

  Reprinted for the author from letters published in the Daily and Tri-

  weekly gleaner.   Kingston, Jamaica, "Gleaner" Co.,  1899.  18 p.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8563. bb. 32. (4.).

     Supports Jan. 1, 1900, as the beginning date of the 20th century.


Foerster, Wilhelm J.  Kalendar und Uhren am Ende des Jahrhunderts. 

  Braunschweig, G. Westermann, 1899.  79 p.            WU


Il 1900 [Millenovecento] se sia l'ultimo anno del secolo XIX o il primo del

  secolo XX.  Ristampa di un opuscolo pubblicato per analoga questione

  nel 1800.  Roma, Tip. Vaticana, 1899.  37 p.


Rajna, Michele.  Quando finisce il secolo decimonono?  In  Almanacco

  italiano.  anno 5; 1900.  Firenze, R. Bemporad, 1899.  p. 54-58.

                                           AY894.I8, 1900

     First published in a supplement to La Perseveranza (Milan), Feb. 12,


     In a detailed discussion of the controversy, shows that 1900 is the last

  year of the 19th century.


Scocchera, A.  Al 1o gennaio 1900 comincera il ventesimo secolo dell'era

  volgare; memoria dimostrativa.  Napoli, A. Trani, 1899.  7 p.


O Ultimo anno do seculo.  In  Almanach Bertrand. 1. anno; 1900.  Lisboa,

  Antiga Casa Bertrand [1899]  p. 1-3.   AY1014.A25, 1900

     Refers to the controversy over the dividing point between the

  centuries, shows why 1900 is the last year of the 19th century, and

  suggests that the dispute will be renewed as the year 2000 approaches.


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Jan. 3, 1899: 8.N&CPR

     Notes that "Mr. John Hutchinson, writing from the Middle Tem-  ple

  Library," calls attention to the preface to the prayer book, in which the

  19th century is described as extending "from the year 1800 till the year

  1899 inclusive," on the authority of an Act of Parliament (24 Geo. II., c.

  23).  The editor remarks, "whatever legal authority the Act may possess,

  it cannot alter the fact that 1900 is the last year of the 19th century, and

  that the 20th century will begin in 1901."


Topics of the times.  New York times, v. 48, Jan. 11, 1899: 6.


     Editorial marveling at the existence of a controversy as to the dividing

  point between centuries:  "the nineteenth century of the Christian era will

  be completed when 1,900 years have elapsed since the first year of the

  Christian era began--that is, at the instant when Dec. 31, 1900, turns from

  'today' into 'yesterday,' while the twentieth century starts on its course

  just as soon as one can with accuracy say 'This is Jan. 1, 1901.'"


The Twentieth century.  (Being a page from the log-book of Zedwhyeks.) 

  Punch, v. 116, Jan. 18, 1899: 33.      AP101.P8, v. 116

     Facetious.  The writer discusses the question with the Professor of

  Calculation and Chronology at Colney Hatch (site of a large mental



Wenn ist das neunzehnte Jahrhundert zu Ende?  Militar-Wochenblatt, 84.

  Jahrg., 27. Jan. 1899: column 248.         MicRR  39491

     Argues that the new century begins Jan. 1, 1900.


The Beginning of the twentieth century.  Observatory, v. 22, Feb. 1899:

  104-105.                                  QB1.O2, v. 22

     Cites some earlier writings on the question.


[Kewitsch, Georg]  Das neue Jahrhundert.  Militar-Wochenblatt, 84. Jahrg.,

  8. Feb. 1899: columns 336-337.             MicRR  39491

     Disagrees with the journal's view on the question and the reasoning

  behind it, as expressed in its Jan. 27 issue, and presents the case in favor

  of Jan. 1, 1901, as the starting date for the 20th century.  This is

  followed by an editorial comment maintaining the pro-1900 view.

     In the Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen

  Unterricht, 30. Jahrg., 7. Heft, 1899, p. 487-490 (Q3.Z38, v. 30),

  Kewitsch's article, somewhat revised and supplemented with additional

  comments and explanations (but without the Militar-Wochenblatt's

  editorial remarks), is reprinted under the same title.


Il Principio del nuovo secolo.  La Civilta cattolica, ser. 17, v. 5, 18 febbr.

  1899: 471-484.                              MicRR 01679

     Bibliographic footnotes.

     Presents both sides of the question in the form of a dialogue between

  Tizio (pro-1900) and Sempronio (pro-1901).


Ewing, Neal H.  When shall we greet the new era?  New York times, v. 48,

  July 22, 1899: 6.                                 N&CPR

     Letter to the editor arguing that the 20th century should begin Jan. 1,

  1900, because the change in the first two digits of the year is so

  impressive.  "The centurial figures are the symbol, and the only symbol,

  of the centuries."  He believes we should not be troubled by the resulting

  reduction to 99 years of the first century.


Ebeling, Herman L.  The end of the century.  New York times, v. 48, July

  25, 1899: 6.                                      N&CPR

     Letter to the editor supporting 1901 as the first year of the 20th



Alden, Edward.  As it might be.  New York times, v. 48, July 31, 1899:

  6.                                                N&CPR

     Letter to the editor expressing a belief that referring to the years by

  ordinal rather than cardinal numeration would make it clear that the new

  century begins in 1900.


West, George E.  Something wrong with the system.  New York times, v.

  48, July 31, 1899: 6.                             N&CPR

     Letter to the editor supporting, with very confused arguments, 1900

  as the first year of the 20th century.


Topics of the times.  New York times, v. 48, Aug. 2, 1899: 6.


     "Defense of the view that the new century begins with 1900 seems to

  have simmered down to the statement that our present system of

  designating the years is not like another system used by certain persons

  for certain other purposes, and that if that other system had been

  extended, as it should have been, to the naming of the years, the new

  century would begin twelve months earlier than it really will.  All this is

  undoubtedly true, but what, pray, has it to do with the case as it is? 

  Facts are one thing; might-have-been's and should-be's are another, and

  failure to distinguish between the two leads to much waste of time and



McDonald, George E.  Twentieth century.  Notes and queries and historic

  magazine, v. 17, Sept./Oct. 1899: 208.  AG305.H5, v. 17

     Provides a table to show how, "if the centuries were volumes, the

  year 1900 would be included in the XIXth century."  Truth Seeker is

  cited as the source, but this could not be verified.


Waite, C. B.   When will the nineteenth century close?  Truth seeker, v. 26,

  Sept. 23, 1899: 602.                       MicRR  02852

     Supports his contention that the century will not end until Dec. 31,

  1900, by quoting from the definition of "century" in "Webster's



Yanney, Benjamin F.  Some calendarial facts about the twentieth century. 

  Scientific American, v. 81, Sept. 23, 1899: 195.

                                             T1.S5, v. 23

     "When will the twentieth century begin?  Why there should be

  different answers to this question is a little puzzling to know ... it begins

  with the first second of the first hour of the first day of January, 1901."

     See the letter from E. H. Van Patten, headed "The Twentieth Century

  Problem," in the issue of Oct. 21, p. 262.  Van Patten's arguments in

  favor of Jan. 1, 1900, as the beginning date of the new century are

  followed by the editor's explanation of why this cannot be so.

     A version of Yanney's article appears under the title "Calendarial

  Facts of Twentieth Century" in Popular Science,  v.  33,  Dec. 1899, p.

  279 (Q1.P8, v. 33).


Schurig, Richard.  Das wahre Geburtsjahr Christi und der Anfang des

  Jahrhunderts.  Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen

  Unterricht, 30. Jahrg., 8. Heft, 1899: 576-578.Q3.Z38, v. 30

     Reprinted from the Leipziger Tageblatt of Dec. 29, 1894.  Dealing on

  p. 578 with the question of the turn of the century, Schurig, pointing out

  that there was no year 0, states that the 20th century begins on Jan. 1,



Flammarion, Camille.  En quelle annee commencera le vingtieme siecle? 

  In  Societe astronomique de France.  Bulletin, 13. annee, dec. 1899:

  527-535.  illus.                          QB1.S6, v. 13

     Finds that a dispute has arisen at the end of every century since at

  least 1599, but shows that the solution is very simple; since the era began

  with a year 1, not a year 0, the 20th century begins Jan. 1, 1901.

     Much of the article also appears in Flammarion's Annuaire

  astronomique et meteorologique pour 1900, p. 174-177 (Paris, Librairie

  E. Flammarion [1899]  QB9.A6, 1900).

     The question was also raised or commented upon at meetings of the

  Societe astronomique de France, according to brief reports in the Bulletin,

  14 annee, janv. 1900, p. 18; fev., p. 63; mars, p. 112; and mai, p. 197

  (QB1.S6, v. 14).


Topics of the times.  New York times, v. 49, Dec. 8, 1899: 6.


     Editorial commenting on the Kaiser's order that "everything

  governmental, from regimental flags to postal cards, will on Jan. 1 next

  be decorated in honor of the new century."  The writer finds himself in

  an embarrassing situation--either he must admit that a century is a period

  of 99 years, or else hold to the opinion that it lasts 100 years, thus

  hinting "that we think the Kaiser has made a very stupid mistake about

  a very simple matter ... The mighty Kaiser has issued his commands, and

  it would be distinctly impious to trust any longer to unassisted common



Hirsch, Gideon M.  Beginnt das neunzehnte Jahrhundert mit dem

  kommenden Neujahrstag?  Das Magazin fur Litteratur, 68. Jahrg., 9.-16.

  Dez. 1899: columns 1153-1160, 1177-1183.   MicRR  38978

     Believes the problem can be solved by changing the system of naming

  centuries, e.g., calling the years 1900-1999 the 19th century, the years

  1800-1899, the 18th century, etc.  There are two postscripts (columns

  1183-1185), the first from Rudolf Steiner suggesting a slight

  modification--the years 1900-1999 to be called century 19, the years

  1800-1899, century 18, etc.--which would allow the terms 19th century

  and 20th century to retain their precise meaning (i.e., 1801-1900 and

  1901-2000); the second is Hirsch's comment on Steiner's proposal.


When does the century close?  Sunday school times, v. 41, Dec. 9, 1899:

  798.                                   BV1500.S8, v. 41

     "One of the endless and useless questions which has been in

  discussion for long years is, 'When does the century close?' ... While

  different opinions are held as to what should have been the decision, it

  is now practically accepted as a settled fact that the twentieth century is

  to be reckoned as beginning January 1, 1900."


Topics of the times.  New York times, v. 49, Dec. 15, 1899: 6.


     "Laboring apparently under the delusion that there is controversy as

  to when the twentieth century begins, The Boston Herald devotes the

  better part of a page to the publication of letters from college Presidents

  to whom it had submitted inquiries on the subject."  Of the 14

  responding, 11 were clearly in favor of 1901; one was "too enigmatic for

  the comprehension of ordinary mortals"; and two expressed themselves

  in favor of 1900.


The New century in Germany:  according to the Kaiser's calendar it begins

  Jan. 1, 1900.  New York times, v. 49, Dec. 16, 1899: 1.


     News item about the German emperor's orders to celebrate Jan. 1,

  1900, as the opening of the 20th century.


End of the century.  Washington post, Dec. 19, 1899: 6.N&CPR


     "A century can end only with the completion of a hundred years, and

  nineteen centuries can end only with the completion of nineteen hundred

  years.  The nineteenth century, therefore, ends with the last day of the

  year 1900, and the twentieth century cannot begin before that time.  Of

  course, it is permissible to any one to claim that some century had only

  ninety-nine years to its credit, and to argue from that amusing hypothesis

  that the next century begins with the 1st day of January, 1900.  But no

  one is compelled by law to accept this proposition, and there is no

  binding reason, so far as we can see, why this or that person need argue

  the case at all.  This is a free country, and almost any citizen can assert,

  if he wants to, that 99 makes 100.  What are we coming to, when our

  best people can be muzzled by the dry and stupid laws of mathematics?"


Schram, Robert.  Die Einrichtung unseres Kalenders und der Beginn des

  Jahrhunderts.  In  Wissenschaftlicher Klub, Vienna.  Monatsblatter, 21.

  Jahrg., 20. Dec. 1899: 27-29.          AS142.V41, v. 21

     Presented at the Nov. 13 meeting of the society.

     Goes back to the origins of our calendar to show why the 20th

  century begins with the year 1901.


Topics of the times.  New York times, v. 49, Dec. 20, 1899: 6.


     Editorial comments on the papal decree which was said to refer to the

  year 1900 as ushering in the new century.  "The Latin text of the

  document has now been made public, and in it there is no faintest trace

  of support for so silly a theory ...  The German Emperor, apparently,

  must stand in solitary grandeur as the only man of any prominence who

  cannot count up to one hundred."


When the century ends.  Outlook, v. 63, Dec. 23, 1899: 951.

                                            AP2.O8, v. 63

     Comments on the decision of the German emperor to begin the 20th

  century a year early and similar errors made by American college and

  university presidents.


Midnight, December 31, 1900.  Washington post, Dec. 28, 1899: 6.


     Editorial.  Restates the paper's position regarding the date of the

  century's end and prints a letter from Donald Gillis of Asheville, N.C.,

  expressing disagreement.  The editor goes on to say:

     "Meanwhile, The Post is open to conviction.  We are not bigoted or

  intolerant.  If anyone will show us how a century can be completed with

  less than 100 years, and how nineteen centuries can be completed with

  less than 1900 years, and how the twentieth century can begin before the

  nineteenth century ends, we shall joyfully put ashes in our hair and hail

  him as a wizard."


Boyle, Sir Courtenay.  The twentieth century.  Times (London), Dec. 29,

  1899: 10.                                         N&CPR

     Letter to the editor giving reasons why he believes the start of the

  new century should be observed on Jan. 1, 1900.  An editorial taking an

  unqualified stance in opposition to such a step appears on p. 7 of the

  same issue.


... The Twentieth century.  English mechanic and world of science, v. 70,

  Dec. 29, 1899: 449.                        MicRR  85176

     "A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society" comments on the

  announcement from Berlin that "the Federal Council decided ... that the

  new century shall be reckoned from January 1, 1900."


Is the twentieth century here, or is it not?  Literary digest, v. 19, Dec. 30,

  1899: 798-799.                           AP2.L58, v. 19

     "One disquieting thought arises among all the 'letters to the editor'

  declaring that the new century begins in 1900, and the patient daily

  replies of the press with diagrams, supposed cyclometers, piles of

  pennies, rows of apples, bricks, and matches, endless vistas of mile-posts,

  regiments of marching soldiers, and imaginary sheep, elephants, and

  grasshoppers jumping over imaginary fences.  The disquieting thought is

  that in a hundred years it will all be forgotten, and some 'letter to the

  editor' will start the whole whirl of pennies, apples, etc., going again."


[The New century]  Spectator, v. 83, Dec. 30, 1899: 974.

                                            AP4.S7, v. 83

     Paragraph commenting on the German emperor's decision to

  inaugurate the 20th century on Jan. 1, 1900, and noting that "a majority

  of the population of Europe will probably agree with him.  The change

  in the designating numeral blinds them to the fact that if the century

  begins, as it must do, with the year 1, it cannot end till the hundredth

  year has expired."

     This item evoked letters from John Tennant, Arthur S. Owen, and

  Oliver Lodge, published under the heading "The New Century"  in v. 84,

  Jan. 6, 1900, p. 15.  The first of these questioned the editor's view, while

  the other two supported it.


The New century.  Spectator, v. 83, Dec. 30, 1899: 988.AP4.S7, v. 83

     Letter to the editor signed Malachi.  It alludes to the controversy

  resulting from an editorial in the Times of Jan. 1, 1850, in which it was

  stated that the second half of the century had begun.  Even the Prince

  Consort was said to have agreed with this notion.  "Malachi" points out

  that "the first year of the first century of the world (or of any era,

  Christian or heathen) began with, not the year 0, but with the year 1;

  equally each succeeding century began and begins with the year 1."


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Dec. 30, 1899: 6.N&CPR

     Five letters to the editor, signed Herbert Stephen, Scaliger, Dionysius

  Maximus, J. Y. Buchanan, and Reductio ad Absurdum, comment on the

  suggestion mde by Sir Courtenay Boyle in the Dec. 29 issue.  Four of the

  writers oppose and one supports him.


Twentieth century already begun.  Sunday school times, v. 41, Dec. 30,

  1899: 846-847.                         BV1500.S8, v. 41

     Quotes correspondents who take issue with the periodical's acceptance

  of Jan. 1, 1900, as the beginning of the 20th century and discusses the

  question further.


The Beginning and the end.  Washington post, Dec. 31, 1899: 19.  illus.


     An article discussing the controversy is followed by five letters, from

  Berkeley C. Waller, D. A. M'Knight, L. A. Boulay, G. L. Peckham, and

  Charles H. Wood.  The first two favor 1900 as the first of the new

  century, and the others, 1901.

     A cartoon shows a 99-years-a-century advocate arguing with Father



[Baumgartel, Gustav]  Losung der Jahrhundertfrage mit dem Zirkel, von

  einem Deutschen.  Dresden, G. Kuhtmann, 1900.  64 p.

     Believes that Dec. 25, 1900, is the true beginning date of the 20th

  century, but states that Jan. 1, 1900, must be substituted since Dec. 25 is

  not the first day of the year.


Cercignani, Emilio.  La misura del tempo.  Quando finische il secolo XIX? 

  Firenze, Lumachi, 1900.  39 p.


Crow, William, of Stratford.  The century chart ...  When does the century

  end?  When the circle is completed, December 31st 1900.  Stratford,

  Avenue Press [1900]  card.  11.5 x 7.5 cm.

     Held by the British Library under shelfmark 1820. h. 8. (7.).


Das Deutsche Reich und Preussen.  1. Abschnitt. Neujahr.  In  Deutscher

  Geschichtskalender fur 1900.  Sachlich geordnete Zusammenstellung der

  politische wichtigsten Vorgange im In- und Ausland von Karl

  Wippermann.  1. Bd. Leipzig, F. W. Grunow, 1900.  p.1-9.D2.D4, 1900, v. 1

     Reprints various announcements and proclamations concerning the

  new year, which was officially designated as the first of the new century,

  and quotes several published sources on the question of when the century

  really begins.


End of the century.  In  Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of

  important events.  3d ser., v. 4; 1899.  New York, D. Appleton, 1900. 

  p. 59.                                     AE5.A7, 1899

     Explains why the year A.D. 1900 is the last of the 19th century.


Graf, Johann H.  Wann beginnt das XX. Jahrhundert?  Vortrag, gehalten im

  Cyklus der akademischen Vortrage.  Bern, K. J. Wyss, 1900.  23 p.


Hirsch, Gideon M.  Neunzehntes oder zwanzigstes Jahrhundert? 

  Zeitrechnungsfragen.  Mit einem Anhang:  Zuschrift des Direktors der

  Berliner Sternwarte, Prof. Dr. W. Forster.  Breslau, Preuss & Junger,

  1900.  32 p.


Ito-dre-casa.  Era storica intermediaria alla soluzione sul principio del

  secolo; complemento al calendario del 1o secolo dell'era volgare. 

  Modena, Societa tip. Modenese, 1900.  20 p.


Porro, Francesco.  Il principio del secolo; due articoli.  Torino, S. Lattes,

  1900.  23 p.

     Reprinted from Il Pensiero italiano, anno 2, luglio/ag. 1892, and

  Gazzetta del popolo, 18 genn. 1899.


Schubring, Gustav.  Das neue Jahrhundert und der christliche Kalender. 

  Erfurt, F. Bartholomaus, 1900.  8 p.

     Discussed in "Zur Jahrhundertwende" in Zeitschrift fur

  Naturwissenschaften, 73. Bd., 27. Feb. 1901, p. 411-415 (Q3.Z4, v. 73).


Whitmell, Charles T.  The twentieth century:  1st January, 1901.  In  Leeds

  Astronomical Society.  Journal and transactions.  no. 7; 1899.  Leeds, R.

  Jackson [1900]  p. 93.                   QB1.L4a, no. 7

     Reprints text of a letter to the editor of the Yorkshire Post explaining

  matters to those who "are still not clear why the 20th Century does not

  begin until 1st January, 1901."


The Beginning of the century.  Observatory, v. 23, Jan. 1900: 69.

                                            QB1.O2, v. 23

     Briefly reports the official decision in Germany to celebrate the

  beginning of the 20th century on Jan. 1, 1900, and mentions that in

  Sweden the year 1900 is also to be regarded as the first of the 20th



[End of the century]  Current literature, v. 27, Jan. 1900: 1.

                                           AP2.C95, v. 27

     Editorial comment.  Cites opposing views but takes no stand.


The End of this century.  Cram's magazine, v. 1, Jan. 1900: 256-257.

                                            AP2.C88, v. 1

     "... the 20th Century does not, cannot begin until the first second of

  the year 1901, or instantly after midnight on Dec. 31st, 1900."


Die Jahrhundert-Zahlung.  Stimmen aus Maria-Laach, 58. Bd., Jan. 1900:

  107-108.                                 AP30.S7, v. 58

     Points out that Schiller and Goethe regarded Jan. 1, 1800, as the first

  day of the 19th century and concludes, "Wenn so grosse deutsche Geister

  das 19. Jahrhundert mit 1800 anfingen, so konnen wir es getrost auch mit

  1899 schliessen."


Koppe, Max.  Der Anfang des Jahrhunderts; eine Betrachtung uber Zahlen

  und Messen.  Zeitschrift fur den physikalischen und chemischen

  Unterricht, 13. Jahrg., Jan. 1900: 1-9.   QC1.Z4, v. 13

     Argues for reckoning the beginning of the 20th century with the year



The Last year of the century.   American  monthly  review of reviews, v.

  21, Jan. 1900: 3.                         AP2.R4, v. 21

     "We must give the nineteenth century the 365 days that belong to its

  hundredth and final year before we begin the year 1 of the twentieth



McCormack, Thomas J.  The year zero.  Open court, v. 14, Jan. 1900:

  32-36.                                  AP2.O495, v. 14

     Chiefly a rendering into English of Pietzker's essay, "Das Jahr



The Nineteenth century.   Notes  and queries  and  historic magazine, v. 18,

  Jan. 1900: 23.                          AG305.H5, v. 18

     Reply to a query, "Is there any book or record as to whether there

  was any discussion in the latter years of the eighteenth century as to

  when the nineteenth was to begin?" in v. 17, Nov./Dec.  1899, p. 224. 

  Cites Robert Southey, who in the initial chapter of The Doctor stated that

  there was a great controversy.


Ritchie, John.  Where the new century will really begin.  Ladies home

  journal, v. 17, Jan. 1900: 7.  illus.      MicRR  05422

     Also deals with the question of when the new century begins.

     Summarized as "Dawn of the Twentieth Century" in Popular

  Astronomy, v. 8, Mar. 1900, p. 161-162 (QB1.P8, v. 8).


Saint-Saens, Camille.  Quand commence le vingtieme siecle.  In  Societe

  astronomique de France.  Bulletin, 14. annee, janv. 1900: 52.

                                            QB1.S6, v. 14

     Points out that when referring to the age of a person or other living

  creature, the number 1 signifies that the first year has been completed,

  while in chronology it means that the first year has begun.


Zum Jahr Null.  Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen

  Unterricht, 31.  Jahrg., 1. Heft, 1900: 17-18.Q3.Z38, v. 31

     Comments on a newspaper controversy that developed in a small town

  in Wurttemberg as a result of Kewitsch's article, "Das neue Jahrhundert"

  (entry 76).


Germany.  Times (London), Jan. 1, 1900: 6.          N&CPR

     A short article on the official court celebrations ordered by the

  emperor to mark the beginning of the 20th century on Jan. 1, 1900. 

  Detailed descriptions of these events can be found under the heading

  "The New Year in Germany" in the issue of Jan. 2, p. 3.


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Jan. 1, 1900: 11.N&CPR

     Eighteen letters to the editor, from E. J. Reed, John Attfield, J. F.

  Hogan, Geo. B., J. W. Sharpe, Edward Steward, Andrew N. Agnew,

  Arthur A. Sykes, J. B. Dimbleby, H. E. Malden, H. W. Pullen, Henry

  Haydon, Rankine Dawson, W. Day, J. B. C., H. B. P., E. M., and P. H.

  B.  Of those expressing an intelligible opinion on the matter, 10 held that

  the 20th century begins on Jan. 1, 1901, and five argued for Jan. 1, 1900. 

  The letter from P. H. B. accompanied a correspondence, found in a book

  of old newspaper cuttings, relating to the controversy 100 years earlier

  (involving R. B. Sheridan, T. Westley, J. Richardson, and C. J. Fox).


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Jan. 2, 1900: 9.N&CPR

     Fourteen letters to the editor, one from Sir Courtenay Boyle

  responding to some of  the  critics  whose letters appeared in the Jan. 1

  issue, and the rest from the Earl of Dunraven, James Edmunds, John

  Sargeaunt, Willoughby Maycock, H. N. Grimley, K. B. Ferguson, W. J.

  Gordon, Harold B. Barkworth, A Secretary, L. E. H., C. F. N., L. Y. L.,

  and A. C.  Of these 13, eight support Jan. 1, 1901, as the first year of the

  new century, and two favor Jan. 1, 1900; the letter from L. E. H. quotes

  a passage from the Gentleman's Magazine to illustrate the parallel

  controversy in 1800.


We close an incident.  Washington post, Jan. 2, 1900: 6.N&CPR

     Editorial announcing that "no more controversy over the close of the

  nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century can be exploited in

  these columns, at least during the year 1900."


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Jan. 3, 1900: 8.N&CPR

     Seven letters to the editor, signed Herbert Stephen, Charles Bright, G.

  J. Turner, C. A. Vince, Geo. B., Dionysius Maximus, and Gregory.  Four

  of these support the view that the new century begins in 1901, and one

  maintains that it began Jan. 1, 1900.


The Year 1900.  World, v. 52, Jan. 3, 1900: 7.AP4.W8, v. 52

     The first paragraph deals with the dispute, remarking that "the parties

  are at feud as mortal as that which divided the Big-Endians and Little-

  Endians in Swift's satire."  Readers are assured that "The century is not

  completed until the last of its hundred years has come to an end; that is

  to say, the nineteenth century will not finish until midnight on the last

  day of December 1900."


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Jan. 4, 1900: 10.N&CPR

     Eight letters to the editor, signed G., Only a Layman, T. Bailey

  Saunders, Medway, M. L. Craven, A. K. S., Dionysius Minimus, and

  Hastings C. Dent.  Of those expressing clear opinions on the matter, two

  favor 1901 as the first year of the new century, and two, 1900.


Stanley, William F.  The twentieth century?  English mechanic and world

  of science, v. 70, Jan. 5, 1900: 474.      MicRR  85176

     Having read the remarks of "A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical

  Society" on this subject in the previous issue, the writer says he finds it

  difficult to accept the argument that "there never was a year 0." 

     The "Fellow" comments on this letter in the Jan. 12 issue, p. 493.


The Twentieth century?  English mechanic and world of science, v. 70,

    Jan. 5, 1900: 474.                                                      MicRR  85176

        A letter signed "Tenbyten," quoting Lalande's remarks from the

    Gentleman's Magazine of Apr. 1800 (cited in note to entry 50).


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Jan. 5, 1900: 6.              N&CPR

        Five letters to the editor, signed A. A. Common, R. M. Minton-

    Senhouse, Dionysius Maximus, R. G. T., and S.P.Q.R.   Four

    express a clear preference for 1901 as the beginning of the new


        Preceding the letters is a reprint of a leading article on the subject

    from the Times of Dec. 26, 1799, sent by Sir Courtenay Boyle (see

    entry 40).


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Jan. 6, 1900: 12.          N&CPR

        Nine letters to the editor, signed Courtenay Boyle, Robert

    Pierpoint, Alan S. Cole, H. W. S.-W., A. G., Zeno, C. Brinsley

    Marlay, Henry Wilson, and F. J. R. Carulla.  Only the first and last

    of these support 1900 as the beginning of the new century.  Sir

    Courtenay refers to a leading article in the Times of Dec. 31, 1849,

    the writer of which appears to believe that the first half of the 19th

    century had come to an end; H. W. S.-W. quotes a letter received

    from the Astronomer Royal; A. G. shows that "in Berlin at any rate,

    the 18th century was regarded as including the year 1800 and as

    ending on the 31st of December in that year," and Marlay quotes a

    pronouncement of the Bureau des longitudes published in Le Temps.


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Jan. 9, 1900: 15.         N&CPR

        Nine letters to the editor, signed Charles Bright, F. A. Straker, T.

    E. Young, A. C. C., John W. Loch, R. G., C. R. K., John Hodgkin,

    and M. L. Craven.  All of the eight expressing clear opinions are in

    favor of 1901 as the first year of the new century.


May, Phil.  Portrait of a calculating gentleman (not at all a bad looking

    chap) who has solved the problem as to whether we are in the

    nineteenth or twentieth century.  Punch, v. 118, Jan. 10, 1900: 32. 

    illus.                                                              AP101.P8, v. 118



Topics of the times.  New York times, v. 49, Jan. 10, 1900: 6.


        Commenting on a reader's protest against ridiculing those who

    believe the 20th century has already begun, the editor points out

    (once again) that there is no evidence of a year 0 as the first year of

    the Christian era.


The Twentieth century.  (Some specimen letters addressed to various

    editors.)  (Forwarded per A. A. S.)  Punch, v. 118, Jan. 10, 1900:


                                                                        AP101.P8, v. 118

        Facetious.  A pertinent comment by Mr. Bloskins appears at the

    end of the column.


The Twentieth century.  Times (London), Jan. 10, 1900: 7.           N&CPR

        Letters to the editor from Oliver Lodge and Albert Orme.  Lodge

    discusses the chronological conventions involved in the controversy

    and concludes, "It appears to be most in accordance with the ideas

    of the old chronologist who settled the Christian era to label the year

    of the Birth 1 A.D., to call this the 1900th year, and to end the

    century next December."


White, Horatio S.  Erring with Plato.  Nation, v. 70, Jan. 11, 1900: 31.

                                                                           AP2.N2, v. 70

        Letter to the editor citing passages from Heine, Schiller, and

    Goethe to show that these writers were also confused about the first

    year of the century.


Carter,  Robert E.   That twentieth century again.   New  York times,

    v. 49, Jan. 12, 1900: 6.                                                       N&CPR

        Letter to the editor.  The writer thinks that regarding Jan. 1, 1900,

    as the beginning of the 20th century can be justified because the

    birth of Christ is believed to have occurred before the year chosen

    to begin the Christian era.


Topics of the times.  New York times, v. 49, Jan. 12, 1900: 6.


        Editorial quoting remarks of Capt. C. H. Davis, superintendent of

    the U.S. Naval Observatory.  "'There can be,' says the Captain, with

    an impatience which we are proud to share, 'there can be no

    question of "opinion" as to the date of the commencement of the

    twentieth century any more than there can be a question of opinion

    on any other simple arithmetical fact.  The twentieth century

    commences with the 1st of January, 1901.'"


The Twentieth century?  English mechanic and world of science, v. 70,

    Jan. 12, 1900: 494.                                                     MicRR  85176

        H. B. F. comments on William F. Stanley's letter published in the

    previous issue (entry 135).


Glossen zur Tagesgeschichte [Jahrhundertwende] Ethische Kultur, 8.

    Jahrg., 13. Jan. 1900: 14.                                                 4-Serials

        Points out that the two zeros and the change of 8 into 9 almost

    inevitably served to lead people astray concerning the end of the

    century, and expresses regret that learned persons did not take upon

    themselves the duty of clearing up the confusion in a timely manner. 

    As a result, Germany is almost alone among the nations in

    celebrating the arrival of the new century a year early.

        See the comments of Wilhelm J. Foerster, headed "Zur Frage des

    Jahrhundert-Anfanges," in the 20. Jan. issue, p. 23-24, and the

    response, "In Bezug auf die 'Jahrhundertwende,'" signed "d.," in the

    27. Jan. issue, p. 31.


The New century.  Scientific American, v. 82, Jan. 13, 1900: 18.

                                                                            T1.S5, v. 82

        "In the daily and weekly press we find a fierce epistolary battle

    raging between those who believe that the year 1899 marks the close

    of the nineteenth century and those who hold that not until 1901

    shall we cross the threshold that divides us from a new era ...

        "It seems so difficult to understand that 1800, 1900, 2000,

    designate not the beginning, but the end of a century, that one

    naturally inquires the origin of the error.  It may be that the mistake

    is due to a kind of optical illusion ...

        "A hundred years ago the same wordy war was waged; a hundred

    years hence it will be renewed; and thus it will go on as century

    after century comes rolling along.  It is a venerable error, long-lived

    and perhaps immortal."


Kellogg, Peter C.  The ending of the century.  New York times, v. 49,

    Jan. 14, 1900: 20.                                                             N&CPR

        Letter to the editor demolishing Robert E. Carter's pro-1900

    arguments published two days earlier (entry 145).


Le XIXe siecle est-il fini?  La Quinzaine, t. 32, 16 janv. 1900: 304.

                                                                          AP20.Q7, v. 32

        A short paragraph that answers the query in the negative, quoting

    among others the editors of the Annuaire of the Bureau des

    longitudes:  "Le XIXe siecle finira le 31 decembre 1900 a minuit."


Did Plato err?  Nation, v. 70, Jan. 18, 1900: 52.                  AP2.N2, v. 70

        Letters to the editor from William M. Payne and Eugene Leser

    commenting on the supposed error of Schiller and Goethe regarding

    the first year of the 19th century (see entry 144).


Bennett, F.  ... A point about the century which has been missed. 

    English mechanic and world of science, v. 70, Jan. 19, 1900: 510.

                                                                            MicRR  85176

        Expresses the view that the monk who established our chronology

    blundered, and that there should have been two zero years--A.D. 0,

    and the preceding year, B.C. 0!


Stanley, William F.  Twentieth century.  English mechanic and world

    of science, v. 70, Jan. 19, 1900: 517.                                  MicRR  85176

        "I think a note should be made that the Emperor William's

    opinion, that the century was complete in 1900, is only the general

    consensus of scientific opinion in Germany."


Kirwan, Charles de.  La fin du siecle.  Cosmos, nouv. ser., t. 42, 20

    janv. 1900: 66.                                                   Q2.C8, n.s., v. 42

        Quotes the statement on this question in the Annuaire for 1900

    issued by the Bureau des longitudes.


Lynn, William T.  The beginning of the twentieth century.  Notes and

    queries, 9th ser., v. 5, Jan. 20, 1900: 41-42.                  AG305.N7, s. 9, v. 5

        The commencement of the new century "obviously will not take

    place until 1 January, 1901.  Nevertheless, strange as it may appear,

    there are some who hold that it has already begun ..."


Franklin, F. G.  The century once more.  Nation, v. 70, Jan. 25, 1900:

    71.                                                                    AP2.N2, v. 70

        Letter to the editor including the first 32 lines of a poem

    published in the Connecticut Courant for Jan. 5, 1801.  The poem,

    dated Jan. 1, 1801, begins "Precisely twelve o'clock, last night,/The

    Eighteenth Century took its flight," and goes on to discuss the

    confusion of those who thought it had ended the year before.


Edmunds, James.  The twentieth century.  English mechanic and world

    of science, v. 70, Jan. 26, 1900: 540.  illus.                           MicRR 85176

        Presents a brief history of our chronology and calendar and their

    Roman precursors.  Since the Christian era did not begin with a zero

    year, it is clear "that the 1900th year has to be completed before the

    19th century is finished."

        A correction appears in the Feb. 2 issue, p. 558.

        Reprinted in the Observatory, v. 23, Feb. 1900, p. 84-87

    (QB1.O2, v. 23), and in Popular Astronomy, v. 8, Mar. 1900, p.

    140-143 (QB1.P8, v. 8).


Ausserungen beruhmter Manner (Mathematiker) uber den Beginn der

    Jahrhunderte (Wolf, Bode, Hindenburg, Gauss).  Zeitschrift fur

    mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 31. Jahrg.,

    2. Heft, 1900: 93-94.                                                  Q3.Z38, v. 31

        Contents:  1.  Von Hindenburg, Prof. d. Mathematik in Leipzig

    (1741-1808).  Wolf und Bode.--2.  Von Gauss.

        The first section is reprinted from the Leipziger Neueste

    Nachrichten of Jan. 1, 1900.  The article cites Hindenburg, who

    himself quotes Christian, Freiherr von Wolff and Johann Elert Bode

    in support of the view that the 20th century begins in 1901. 

    Hindenburg's publication on the subject in 1800 caused the city of

    Leipzig to celebrate the opening of the 19th century on Jan. 1, 1801.

        The second section is an excerpt from a letter Gauss wrote to

    Bolyai on Dec. 16, 1799, in which he implies a preference for

    regarding that year as the last of the 18th century.


Bergold, E.  Zum Jahrhundert-Streit.  Zeitschrift fur mathematischen

    und naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 31. Jahrg., 2. Heft, 1900:

    94-96.                                                                 Q3.Z38, v. 31

        Criticizes the treatment of this matter by Kewitsch in Heft 7 of

    1899 and by the editor in Heft 1 of 1900 (entries 76 and 127) as

    suggesting that it is a purely academic question, upon which one's

    viewpoint is a matter of choice.  By referring to chronological

    practices in classical antiquity, upon which the chronology of

    Dionysius Exiguus was based, he shows that there can be only one

    current answer to the question--in the case of the 20th century, it can

    begin only on Jan. 1, 1901.  Kewitsch's response, ""Erwiderung von

    Kewitsch gegen Berghold [sic]" appears on p. 139-140.


[Commencement of the new century]  Science-gossip, new ser., v. 6,

    Feb. 1900: 282.                                                    Q1.S4, n.s., v. 6

        Short paragraph concluding, despite contrary views published in

    some newspapers, that "We are still in the 19th century, and many

    things may yet happen before its conclusion."


Dix-neuvieme ou vingtieme siecle?  Ou nous en sommes.  Bibliotheque

    universelle et revue suisse, t. 17, fev. 1900: 416-418.

                                                                          AP24.B5, v. 17

        "Il faut croire que le nombre de ceux qui ont du temps a perdre

    est tres considerable, et que les sujets de 'copie' manquent a

    boucoup de journalistes, quand on voit combien de discussions,

    orales ou ecrites, ont ete engagees sur la question de savoir si

    l'annee 1900 fait partie du dix-neuvieme ou du vingtieme siecle ... 

    Car il n'y pas a en douter:  1900 est la derniere annee du dix-

    neuvieme siecle:  ce n'est pas la premiere annee du vingtieme."


End of the century.  Current literature, v. 27, Feb. 1900: 100.

                                                                          AP2.C95, v. 27

        Editorial comment.  Quotes a cable dispatch from London to

    demonstrate that the "debate over the ending of the century is by no

    means confined ... to the people of the United States."


XIX.-XX.--Division of the centuries.  Father Time's memory at fault. 

    Horological journal, v. 42, Feb. 1900: 73-76.  illus.

                                                                         TS540.H8, v. 42

        Signed "Beta."

        Discusses the controversy without taking sides.


The Only way.  Macmillan's magazine, v. 81, Feb. 1900: 309-310.

                                                                           AP4.M2, v. 81

        Poem signed A. G.  After making fun of some of the arguments

    used by the pro-1900 faction, the writer ends with a mock surrender

    to the Kaiser's decision:  "Hail, then, to His august decree,/Who,

    seated high on Potsdam's throne,/Proclaims the Nineteenth

    Century/Is gone!"

        Reprinted in the Living Age, v. 224, Mar. 24, 1900, p. 741-742

    (MicRR  32984).


This twentieth century.  A retractation.  Irish monthly, v. 28, Feb. 1900:

    57-59.                                                                 AP4.I7, v. 28

        The writer revises his earlier opinion that the year 1900 was the

    last of the 19th century and now seeks to convince his readers that

    "the Twentieth Century is already a month old."  Among other

    arguments, he cites "the Act of Parliament of 1752, which makes the

    century close at midnight on December 31, 1899."


The Twentieth century.  Macmillan's magazine, v. 81, Feb. 1900:

    310-312.                                                               AP4.M2, v. 81

        Letter to the editor signed "Dionysius Minimus" and dated

    January 19th, 1900.  Expresses the view that to prefer Jan. 1, 1901,

    as the beginning date of the 20th century is to "prefer what is

    bizarre, distracting, and uncomfortable to what is simple,

    straightforward, and in the natural order of things ..."

        Reprinted in the Living Age, v. 224, Mar. 24, 1900, p. 742-744

    (MicRR  32984).


[Ule, Willi]  Die Jahrhundertwende.  Die Natur, 49. Jahrg., 18. Feb.

    1900: 94.                                                               Q3.N2, v. 49

        Regards the year 1900 as belonging to the 19th century, since

    there was no zero year.


Le Vingtieme siecle.  In  Societe astronomique de France, Paris. 

    Bulletin, 14. annee, fev. 1900: 99-100.                                 QB1.S6, v.14

        A letter from General Parmentier supporting 1901 as the first year

    of the 20th century is followed by a description of the festivities in

    Berlin celebrating the arrival of the new century on Jan. 1, 1900. 

    Flammarion adds a note remarking, "puisque l'an 1899 est, par

    definition meme, la 1899e annee de l'ere chretienne, l'annee 1900 est

    la 1900e, et le siecle finira avec elle."


Winterwood, Geoffrey.  Which century?   Sunday magazine, new ser.,

    v. 29, Feb. 1900: 137.                                          AP4.S85, n.s., v. 29

        "The arguments of those who contend that the twentieth century

    began on the 1st January 1900 are often extremely ingenious, but so

    far as we have seen them they turn on analogies which are inexact

    and fallacious ...  Most of us fail to realise that the Dionysian

    reckoning was grafted on an old system of chronology, that the first

    year was that to which was assigned the birth of Christ at

    Bethlehem, and that the year preceding was the year B.C. 1."


Beginning of the twentieth century.  Popular astronomy, v. 8, Mar.

    1900: 160.                                                              QB1.P8, v. 8


The Date-line.  Century magazine, v. 59, Mar. 1900: 801-802.

                                                                           AP2.C4, v. 59

        Editorial.  Remarks that "1900 is the last year of the nineteenth

    century, and not the first of the twentieth," citing the definition of

    "century" in the Century Dictionary, and goes on to reflect upon the

    "stir in the minds of men occasioned by so great a change in the

    date as the one made this year ..."


Foerster, Wilhelm J.  Zwei Ausserungen uber die Jahrhundertwende. 

    Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen

    Unterricht, 31. Jahrg., 3. Heft, 1900: 178-181.                        Q3.Z38, v. 31

        Reprints.  The first article is from the Preussischer

    Normalkalender for 1901 (published here with a short addendum),

    and the second, "Wann beginnt das neue Jahrhundert?" is from

    Ethische Kultur, 8. Jahrg., 20. Jan. 1900, p. 23-24 (4-Serials).  In

    both, Foerster argues for a method of reckoning centuries that

    supports the decision of the Prussian authorities to celebrate the

    beginning of the 20th century on Jan. 1, 1900.  The editor of the

    Zeitschrift, Volkmar Hoffmann, adds a few other examples of

    supporting arguments (p. 182).


Hobhouse, Sir Arthur Hobhouse, 1st Baron.  The battle of the centuries. 

    Contemporary review, v. 77, Mar. 1900: 397-410.                        AP4.C7, v. 77

        Considers the arguments used by those who believe that the 20th

    century began on Jan. 1, 1900, as recorded in letters to the editor of

    the Times.  "I confess," writes Lord Hobhouse, "to having felt much

    surprise when I first found that a truth, which I had thought to be as

    rudimentary as the truth that 2 + 2 make 4, was questioned, not only

    in the superficial way in which the unreflecting may question

    anything, but seriously and by educated men.  But my surprise has

    been increased by trying to understand what reason exists for this

    questioning, and by finding that many of the reasons assigned are

    irrelevant, many are destructive of the conclusion in support of

    which they are advanced, and that such as would be relevant and

    logical have no basis whatever to maintain them in point of fact ... 

    I suppose that this dispute will die away for the present, but perhaps

    in the year 2000 our great grandchildren will revive it, and will

    consult the files of the Times or those (who knows?) of the

    CONTEMPORARY REVIEW, for arguments to show that 1999 years

    make up 20 centuries."


Hoffmann, Volkmar.  Der Streit uber den Beginn des Jahrhunderts in

    neuer Beleuchtung.  Auseinandersetzung und Kompromiss-

    Vorschlag.  Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und

    naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 31. Jahrg., 3. Heft, 1900:

    169-177.                                                               Q3.Z38, v. 31

        Includes a prediction that humanity will not wait until Jan. 1,

    2001, to celebrate the beginning of the new millennium.


Der Streit um den Jahrhundertanfang.  Gaea; Natur und Leben, 36.

    Jahrg., Marz 1900: 187-188.                                             Q3.G2, v. 36

        Points to all the authorities that have used the 100th year in

    which to begin centuries, from Charlemagne on, and concludes that

    this clearly supports Jan. 1, 1900, as the opening date of the 20th



Tille, Alexander.  Der Beginn des nachsten Jahrhunderts.  Die Zukunft,

    30. Bd., 10. Marz 1900: 425-431.                                        MicRR  39088

        Discusses the confusion and makes it clear that, in the present

    system of counting years, the new century will begin only with the

    year 1901.


Le Siecle et la centieme annee.  L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et

    curieux, v. 41, 7, 22 avril 1900: columns 579, 704.                  AG309.I6, v. 41

        An inquirer cites a newspaper report to the effect that a

    disagreement between French and German views concerning the end

    of the the century could be ascribed to a difference in meaning

    between the words "Jahrhundert" and "siecle."  The respondent states

    that views on the matter were much the same in both countries;

    while popular opinion was divided, the scientific academies of both

    nations agreed that the new century would not begin until Jan. 1,



Schwab, Gustav.  Der Beginn des Jahrhunderts.  Zeitschrift fur

    mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 31. Jahrg.,

    5. Heft, 1900: 356-358.                                                Q3.Z38, v. 31


Topics of the times.  New York times, v. 50, Nov. 9, 1900: 6.


        Editorial commenting on the dispatch from Rome announcing that

    on Dec. 31, 1900, Pope Leo XIII would celebrate the last mass of

    the century.


Evans, John W.  The coming of the new century.  Its spasmodic career

    across the map.  Sphere, v. 3, Dec. 29, 1900: 368-369.  illus.

                                                                           AP4.S73, v. 3

        Among the pictures is one of a ship; the caption reads, "The first

    people to enter the new century may, perhaps, be on a vessel

    crossing the date line at midnight on December 31, 1900.  The

    vessel shown here is one of the Canadian Pacific fleet which

    regularly crosses the 180 deg. line on her journeys from Vancouver

    to Hong Kong.  Should she pass at the auspicious moment it will be

    possible for the bow watch who has entered the twentieth century to

    hail the man at the stern who, but a few yards away, is still a

    century behind."


The Century change of 1801.  New York times, v. 50, Dec. 30, 1900:



        Notes that the newspapers then "seem to have been as busy with

    the dispute as to the initial year of the century as a certain part of

    the public was a year ago."  Quotes from the "Ode to the Century"

    published in the Connecticut Courant of Jan. 5, 1801, and a letter

    published in the Columbian Centinel (Boston) on Jan. 1, 1801,

    predicting the renewal of "the century dispute" in a hundred years'



Ahrens, Wilhelm E. M. G.  Der Jahrhundertanfang.  In his 

    Mathematische  Unterhaltungen und Spiele.  Leipzig,  B. G.

    Teubner,  1901.  p. 389-393.                                                QA95.A28

        Bibliographic footnotes.


Baumgartel, Gustav.  Polemik uber die Jahrhundertfrage zwischen dem

    Culturhistoriker Prof. Dr. Henne am Rhyn, Staatsarchivar in St.

    Gallen, und dem Architekten Gustav Baumgartel, Dresden, als

    Verfasser der beiden Schriften: "Losung der Jahrhundertfrage mit

    dem Zirkel" und "Warum konnte die Jahrhundertfrage nicht

    einheitlich gelost werden?"  Anhang:  Erorterung uber die Bedeutung

    der "0" also Jahresbezeichnung vom Standpunkte der Chronologie. 

    Dresden, 1901.  20, 4 p.                                                          NN


B[aumgartel], G[ustav]  Warum konnte die Jahrhundertfrage nicht

    einheitlich gelost werden?  1900 oder 1901.  Mit bildlicher

    Darstellung.  Dresden, G. Kuhtmann, 1901.  7 p.  illus.

        Assumes that Christ was born on Dec. 25, 1 B.C., which year is

    numbered 0 in astronomical chronology.  The author believes that

    year should be regarded as the first of our era, which would mean

    that the 20th century began on Jan. 1, 1900.


The Beginning of the century.  In  The Daily news almanac and

    political register.  17th year; 1901.  Chicago.  p. 184.             AY67.C4N5, 1901

        Brief explanation of why "Dec. 31, 1900, was the last day of the

    nineteenth century, and the twentieth century began Jan. 1, 1901."


Close of the old century.  In  Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and

    register of important events.  3d ser., v. 5; 1900.  New York, D.

    Appleton, 1901.  p. 428.                                                AE5.A7, 1900

        Describes how New York City welcomed the 20th century on the

    night of Dec. 31, 1900.

        See also "Twentieth Century's Triumphant Entry" in the New

    York Times, v. 50, Jan. 1, 1901, p. 1-2 (N&CPR).


Kewitsch, Georg.  Die astronomische Era und das Jahrhundert 19

    (Jahrhundertwende).  Freiburg i.B., C. Troemer, 1901.  15 p.


Fievez, Charles.  A propos du XXe siecle.  In  Societe belge

    d'astronomie.  Bulletin, 6. annee, janv. 1901: 26-27.                   QB1.S7, v. 6


Foerster, Wilhelm J.  Das neue Jahrhundert und die Reform unseres

    Zahlungswesens.   In  Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie

    und kosmischen Physik.  Mitteilungen, 11. Jahrg., Jan. 1901: 8-16.

                                                                           QB1.V4, v. 11


Griffith, George.  Where will the 20th century commence?  Pearson's

    magazine, v. 11, Jan. 1901: 3-6.  illus.                              AP2.P35, v. 11

        "... the nineteenth century cannot end until Christendom has

    counted nineteen hundred years."

        Points out that the 20th century will begin at midnight at East

    Cape, Siberia, and also discusses the question of when and where the

    first day of the 20th century will dawn.


Kewitsch, Georg.  Die astronomische Era.  Zeitschrift fur

    mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 32. Jahrg.,

    1. Heft, 1901: 1-9.                                                    Q3.Z38, v. 32

        Proposes a general adoption of the astronomical system of

    chronology.  This involves substituting a year 0 for 1 B.C. and

    designating earlier years with minus signs (e.g., 2 B.C. becomes -1). 

    The year 0 would then become the first in the Christian era, the

    years 0 to 99 would be called century 0, the years 1900 to 1999

    would constitute century 19, and the confusion over the turn of the

    century would cease.


Lancaster, Albert B. M.  Le XXe siecle.  Ciel et terre, 21. annee, 1 janv.

    1901: 522-523.                                                         QB1.C5, v. 21


Anding, Ernst.  Ueber den Beginn des Jahrhunderts.  Bayerisches

    Industrie- und Gewerbeblatt, 87. Jahrg., 5.-19. Jan. 1901: 3-4, 9-12,

    18-20.                                                                 T3.B35, v. 87

        Considers arguments for both views but favors 1901.


Keller, Arthur I.  Welcoming the twentieth century.  Harper's weekly,

    v. 45, Jan. 5, 1901: 1.  illus.                                       AP2.H32, v. 45

        Drawing shows a dozen people of all ages, the adults of the

    family with wine glasses raised, gathering at a grandfather clock as

    midnight approaches.


Welcome to the new century.  Mail and express illustrated Saturday

    magazine, Jan. 5, 1901: 5.  illus.                                     AP2.S17, 1901

        Drawings with captions.  The larger one shows crowds at the

    New York city hall celebrating at midnight, Dec. 31, 1900.  The

    smaller one depicts the illuminated buildings of the city as seen from

    the riverfront the same night.


Flammarion, Camille.  Quel jour et en quel pays a commence le

    vingtieme siecle?  La Nouvelle revue, nouv. ser., t. 8, 15 fev. 1901:

    484-494.                                                                MicRR  04839

        Summarized in a report entitled "In quale giorno ed in quale

    paese e incominciato il ventesimo secolo" in La Lettura, anno 1,

    mar. 1901, p. 279-280 (AP37.L4, v. 1).


Ein nachtraglicher Ausspruch uber die Jahrhundertwende.  (Von einem

    Schweizer.)  Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und

    naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 32. Jahrg., 3. Heft, 1901: 183.    Q3.Z38, v. 32

        Dated Zurich, June 22, 1900, and signed Dr. Bl., a letter to the

    editor comments on the mildness of the controversy in Switzerland,

    remarking that many were pleased that the old century had not yet

    run its course.  The only official action observed by the writer was

    a notice from the church committee in Zurich, which stated that its

    century would begin on Jan. 1, 1901.


Winterich, John T.   Father Time's big night out.    Nation's business,

    v. 37, Jan. 1949: 46-48, 50.  col. illus.                              HF1.N4, v. 37

        "A look back to the birth of the twentieth century suggests what

    is in store when the year 2001 comes."


Heiland, Fritz.  Wann beginnt ein Jahrhundert?  Die Sterne, 27. Jahrg.,

    Heft 1/2, 1951: 1-2.                                                  QB1.S85, v. 27

        An English translation by Alma M. Hammer, "When Does a

    Century Begin?" appears in Popular Astronomy,  v. 59,  June 1951,

    p. 341-342 (QB1.P8, v. 59).


Mid-century?  In  U.S. Library of Congress.  Information bulletin, v. 9,

    Jan. 2, 1950: 21.                                                   Z733.U57I6, v. 9

        On the end of the first half of the 20th century.

Top of Page

End of the Twentieth Century


Quinn, Jim.  ... and every year counts.  Washington post weekend, Dec.

    28, 1979: 43.                                                                  N&CPR

        A friend of the writer's points out that 1980 is "the last year of

    the seventh decade of the 20th century."  (It was actually the last

    year of the eighth decade.)


[Doggett, LeRoy E.]  Decade & century.  [Washington, D.C.] U.S.

    Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac Office, 1980.  1 sheet.

        Briefly describes the correct method of reckoning the beginning

    and ending of decades and centuries.


Debut du siecle prochain.  L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et curieux,

    nouv. ser., 31. annee, juin, oct., dec. 1981: columns 572-573,

    945-950, 1182-1183.                                           AG309.I64, n.s., v. 31

        The question, raised by Jean-Marc Blanc, received an immediate

    (and unsatisfactory) response from the editorial staff; subsequent

    replies furnished overlong and complicated explanations of this very

    simple matter.  Apparently nobody thought to look into the journal's

    own files for the answers supplied when the question came up

    toward the end of the previous century.


When do centuries start?  Discover, v. 4, Oct. 1983: 77.                    Q1.D57, v. 4

        A letter from Dick Ridgway questioning the answer given to one

    of the "Mind Benders" on p. 98 of the Sept. 1983 issue, which turns

    on the question of the dividing point between centuries.  The editor's

    response states, "Centuries end on the last day of the year ending

    with the numbers 00; the twenty-first century will not begin until

    January 1, 2001."


As the world turns.  Esquire, v. 101, Jan. 1984: 36.                    AP2.E845, v. 101

        "... an eager band of young professionals is busy preparing for

    what has been billed as the world's most extravagant millennium

    bash.  The World Millennium Ball will begin (if all goes according

    to plan) at six P.M. Greenwich time on December 31, 1999, at the

    Great Pyramid of Cheops ..."


Leight, Warren D.    How to act your (new) age.    Northwest Orient,

    v. 16, Dec. 1985: 13-15.  illus.

        Facetious advice on preparing for the third millennium, which the

    author assumes will begin Jan. 1, 2000.


Freburger, William J.  A siecle with 14 years left is no joke.  National

    Catholic reporter, v. 22, Mar. 28, 1986: 19.  illus.

                                                                         MicRR  02591 BX

        "Even now as we enter the fin de siecle, it is difficult to say what

    the coming of the millennium will bring.  I suppose the only

    problem we can tackle immediately is the question:  Does the

    millennium begin Jan. 1, 2000, or Jan. 1, 2001?"


White, Bill.  Right day, wrong century.  Science news, v. 130, Aug. 23,

    1986: 126.                                                            Q1.S76, v. 130

        Letter to the editor pointing out a mistake in a short note in the

    July 12 issue (p. 22) entitled "Rickover Dead at 86."  It was stated

    there that the admiral had been "born on the 27th day of this

    century" although the year of his birth was 1900, the last year of the

    previous century.  White continues, "A lot of misinformed people are

    going to get drunk on the night of Dec. 31, 1999, thinking they are

    celebrating a new century and a new millennium.  I don't suppose

    there's much hope you and other "esoteric" publications can make

    them understand their error, but please, don't perpetuate the error



Le XXIe siecle ne commence pas en l'an 2000 ...  Science & vie, no

    836, mai 1987: 8.                                                        T2.S3, 1987

        Quotes part of a letter from M. F. Georges of Paris, calling

    attention to the fact that the Genitron, a device on display at the

    Centre Pompidou which is counting off the seconds of time

    remaining in the present millennium, has as its zero point Jan. 1,

    2000, a year short.

        The editor comments, "Contrairement a ce que pensent

    bizarrement la plupart des gens, le XXIe siecle ne commencera

    qu'apres zero heure le 31 decembre 2000.  Mais peut-etre les

    createurs du Genitron ont-ils voulu simplement distinguer la derniere

    annee du siecle ..."

        This piece generated so many letters from puzzled and

    unconvinced readers that two further short articles were published in

    an attempt to clarify matters:  "Troisieme millenaire (bis)" in no 837,

    juin, p. 6, and "Le XXIe siecle (ter)" in no 838, juil., p. 4.


Hagedorn, Ann.  To mark year 2000, some events will be out of this

    world.  Fears of apocalypse spark plans for rescue by blimp; a big

    bash at the pyramid.  Wall Street journal, v. 211, June 27, 1988: 1, 6.


        The writer and her subjects evidently assume that the year 2000

    marks the beginning, rather than the end, of a millennium.


Kulikov, G. S.  Kogda nachntsia tret'e tysiacheletie?  Zemlia i 

    vselennaia, iiul'/avg. 1988:93-95.

   QB1.Z47, 1988

        Concludes that the third millennium will begin at midnight, Dec.

    31, 2000.


Fulmer, Dina.  Turn of the century.  Psychology today, May 1989: 6.

                                                                          BF1.P855, 1989

        Letter to the editor calling attention to the erroneous assumption,

    in an article published in the Dec. 1988 issue, that the 21st century

    will begin on Jan. 1, 2000.


Smith, Charles W.  There was no year 0.  Washington post, May 15,

    1989: A8.                                                                      N&CPR

        Letter to the editor.  This inspired a response from Steve

    Sullivan, published in the May 27 issue, p. A23, under the heading

    "Symbolic Piffle," manifesting exasperation with the traditions of

    history and chronology.


Lycett, Andrew.  Where will you be at midnight on December 31,

    1999?  Times (London), May 29, 1989: 13.  ports.                               N&CPR

        On various plans for celebrating the third millennium in Britain--

    generally, a year too soon.


Schwartz, Hillel.  Century's end; a cultural history of the fin de siecle

    from the 990s through the 1990s.   New York, Doubleday  [1990] 

    397 p.  illus.                                                       CB428.S39  1990

        Bibliographic references included in "Endnotes" (p. [299]-375).

        For discussion of the dispute about the dividing point between

    centuries, see the index under "centurial feuds."

        Phil May's cartoon (see entry 140) is reproduced on p. [154]


Hamel, Jurgen.  Wann beginnt das 3. Jahrtausend?  Jahrzehnt,

Jahrhundert, Jahrtausend--wo liegen Anfang und Ende?  Wissenschaft

und Fortschritt, 40. Jahrg., Heft 1, 1990: 16-17.  illus.                   Q3.W5, v. 40

        References (3):  p. 17.

        Additional illustrations appear on the inside front cover of the


        Points out that the new century and millennium will not begin

    until Jan. 1, 2001.


Roberts, Chalmers M.  To celebrate or not--when is the question. 

    Smithsonian, v. 20, Jan. 1990: 172.  col. illus.                      AS30.S6, v. 20


R[ebeyrol], Y[vonne]  Ce siecle avait un an...  Le Monde, 2 janv. 1990:

    16.                                                                            N&CPR

        Cites the definition of "siecle" in Le Grand Larousse and states,

    "Nous avons donc encore un an pour nous preparer a entamer la

    derniere decennie du vingtieme siecle et onze ans avant d'arriver, le

    1e janvier 2001, au vingt et unieme siecle."


Campbell, Steuart.  A year in a thousand; Steuart Campbell on the

    debate about when the millennium ends.  New scientist, v. 125, Feb.

    10, 1990: 66.  illus.                                                 Q1.N52, v. 125

        Believes that those supporting the view that the new millennium

    begins Jan. 1, 2001, will never convince those who plan to celebrate

    a year earlier.


Boussin, Andre.  Debut du siecle prochain.  L'Intermediaire des 

    chercheurs et curieux, no 466, mars 1990: columns 214-215.

                                                                         AG309.I64, 1990

        Quotes a helpful explanation published in the Jan. 2, 1990, issue

    of Le Monde (see entry 219).


Kemble, Lucian J.  Premature millennialism.  Natural history, Dec.

    1990: 4-5.                                                             QH1.N13, 1990

        Letter to the editor calling attention to "a common

    misunderstanding about the turn of the millennium" expressed in an

    editorial, "Natural History at 90," by Alan Ternes, in the May 1990

    issue, p. 6.


Whitney, Craig R.  Londoners can't wait for the year 2000.  New York

    times, v. 140, Dec. 31, 1990: 3.                                               N&CPR

        Reports that the Savoy is already overbooked for the night of

    Dec. 31, 1999, by persons wishing to celebrate the arrival of the

    third millennium, and adds that "some will argue that all these

    people have got the date wrong.  The first year of the new century

    (and, therefore, of the millennium) begins on Jan. 1, 2001, not a year

    earlier, these pedants will point out."  The chairman of the Arts

    Council, Lord Palumbo, is quoted as observing that "the nice thing

    about it is that you can just have a celebration both years."


Trachet, Tim.  Begint de 21e eeuw in het jaar 2000?  Zenit, 18. jaarg.,

    jan. 1991: 14-17.  illus.                                                      DN-Ob

        Points out that the 21st century will begin when 20 centuries, or

    2000 years, have passed.


Need, Richard.  The new millennium.  Times (London), Jan. 31, 1991:

    13.                                                                            N&CPR

        Letter to the editor.  Protests the application, in a recent article,

    of the term "pedants" to those "who realise that the century and

    millennium do not end until December 31, 2000."


Hutton, Harry.  The new millennium.  Times (London), Feb. 4, 1991:

    11.                                                                            N&CPR

        Quotes with approval the comment made by Father Alexander R.

    Vidler in his autobiography, Scenes From a Clerical Life:  "I prefer

    the opinion that a century ends when its enumeration departs from

    the calendar."  Somehow this suggests that 1899 is the last year of

    the 18th century.


Blackman, David.  The new millennium.  Times (London), Feb. 6,

    1991: 13.                                                                      N&CPR

        Letter to the editor.  Disputes the assertion made by Richard

    Need (see entry 225), stating that "Common sense suggests that the

    first millennium began on the first of January, AD 0 ..."


Martin, John F.  The new millennium.  Times (London), Feb. 7, 1991:

    11.                                                                            N&CPR

        Letter to the editor.  In an optimistic attempt to settle the dispute,

    quotes an editorial from the Times of Jan. 1, 1900:  "The New Year,

    the last of the Nineteenth Century, which begins today ..."


Middleton, Fred C.  The new millennium.  Times (London), Feb. 9,

    1991: 11.                                                                      N&CPR

        Letter to the editor.  Calls attention to the flaw in Blackman's

    argument (see entry 227), namely, that there was never a year AD



Don't be late for the party.  Times (London), Apr. 2, 1991: 10.


        "The world has voted with its cheque book in the debate on

    precisely when the millennium ends.  While pedants continue to pit

    December 31, 1999, against the end of the year 2000, everyone who

    is anyone, it seems, has opted for the earlier date as the time to

    organise what they hope will be the mother of all parties."

        Goes on to report that a hotel, the construction of which had not

    yet begun, was already fully booked for that date, and points out that

    flying Concorde westward would enable revelers to ring in the New

    Year in several widely separated cities.


Counting the years.  Time, special issue, fall 1992: 8.                    AP2.T37, 1992

        A short note on chronology, dismissing those who know how to

    count as "purists" and claiming that "very few of the world's citizens

    will wait for Jan. 1, 2001, to mark the millennium's beginning."


Smilowe, Jill.  The great event:  tonight we're gonna party like it's

    1999.  You won't need an excuse to celebrate the greatest New

    Year's eve of all.  But you might need a reservation--now.  Time,

    special issue, Fall 1992: 10-11.  col. illus.                          AP2.T37, 1992

        "Reported by Wendy Cole/New York and Dan Cray/Los Angeles."

        On the many plans for celebrating the start of the last year of the

    20th century, under the misapprehension that it will be the first year

    of the third millennium.

Top of Page


The numbers refer to entries, not pages.

***, M., bachelier en theologie, 4-5, 10

A., M. S. F., 32

A. A. S., 142

A. C., 130

A. C. C., 139

A. D., 49

A. G., 138, 165

A. K. S., 134

A. R., 32

Abicht, Johann G., 16

Academie francaise, Paris, 1

Agnew, Andrew N., 129

Ahrens, Wilhelm E. M. G., 183

Albert, Consort of Queen Victoria, 102

Alden, Edward, 80

Anding, Ernst, 194

Un Anticritique malgre luy, 6

Astronomer Royal.  See  Christie, Sir

    William H. M.; Maskelyne, Nevil

Attfield, John, 129

B., G. F. R., 59

B., Geo., 129, 132

B., P. H., 129

B. S., 29, 32

Bagelaar, Jan, 17

Barkworth, Harold B., 130

Baumgartel, Gustav, 106, 184-185

Becker, Peter, 3

Bennett, F., 153

Bergold, E., 160

Beta, 164

Bl., Dr., 198

Blackman, David, 227, 229

Blanc, Jean-Marc, 204

Bloskins, Mr., 142

Bode, Johann Elert, 159

Bolyai, Farkas, 159

Book of common prayer, 71

Boulay, L. A., 105

Boussin, Andre, 221

Boyle, Sir Courtenay, 98, 103, 130,


Bright, Charles, 132, 139

Buchanan, J. Y., 103

Burja, Abel, 33

Bureau des longitudes.  See  France. 

     Bureau des longitudes

Busch, J. G., tr., 41

C., A., 130

C., A. C., 139

C., D., 32

C., J. B., 129

C., R., 32, 50

C. F. N., 130

C. N., 30-32

C. R. K., 139

C. Sh., 31-32

Campbell, Steuart, 220

Camus, J., 58

Canadian Pacific Railway Company,

    ocean steamships, 181

Cantzlaar, Jan, 34, 41-42

Carter, Robert E., 145, 150

Cartoons, 105, 140, 164, 195, 216

Carulla, F. J. R., 138

Centre national d'art et de culture

    Georges Pompidou, 210

Cercignani, Emilio, 107

Charlemagne, 176

Christie, Sir William H. M., 138

Church of England.  Book of common

    prayer, 71

Cole, Alan S., 138

Cole, Wendy, 232

Colney Hatch, 73

Columbian Centinel, 182

Common, Andrew A., 137

Concorde (jet transports), 230

Connecticut Courant, 157, 182

A Constant reader, 28

Cordatus, Sincerus, 25

Craven, M. L., 134, 139

Cray, Dan, 232

Crow, William, of Stratford, 108

Cutshort, 53

d., 149

D., 38

D., A., 49

D., M...., avocat en Parlement, 12

D. C., 32

Darragon, Francois L., 43

Davis, Capt. Charles H., Jr., 146

Dawson, Rankine, 129

Day, W., 129

Delaisement, M., 4-5, 10, 15

Delpech, Jean, marquis de

    Mereville, 1

Dent, Hastings C., 134

De Willowby, 38

Dictionary definitions, 84, 172, 219

Dimbleby, J. B., 129

Dionysius Exiguus, 153, 160

Dionysius Maximus, pseud., 103, 132,


Dionysius Minimus, pseud., 134, 167

Doggett, LeRoy E., 203

Dunraven, Windham Thomas

     Wyndham-Quin, 4th Earl of, 130

Dwight, Timothy, 55

E. M., 58, 129

Ebeling, Herman L., 79

Edmunds, James, 130, 158

Emperor, German.  See  Wilhelm II,

     German emperor

Equilibrium, pseud., 65

Evans, John W., 181

Ewing, Neal H., 78

F., H. B., 147

F. F. O. D. O. I., 20

A Fellow of the Royal

    Astronomical Society, 99, 135

Ferguson, K. B., 130

Fievez, Charles, 189

Fivescore, 53

Flammarion, Camille, 87, 169, 197

Foerster, Wilhelm J., 63, 66, 112, 148,

     173, 190

Fox, Charles James, 129

France.  Bureau des longitudes, 138,

    151, 155

Franklin, F. G., 157

Freburger, William J., 208

Fulmer, Dina, 213

G., 134

G., A., 138, 165

G., N., 28-30

G., R., 139

G. F. R. B., 59

G. W., 31

Gauss, Karl Friedrich, 159

Gelder, Jacob de, 44

Genitron, 210

Un Gentil-homme de province, 9

Georges, F., 209

German emperor.  See  Wilhelm II,

     German emperor

Gillis, Donald, 97

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 61, 120,

144, 152

Gordon, W. J., 130

Graf, Johann H., 111

Great Pyramid (Egypt), 206, 211

Gregory, 132

Griffith, George, 191

Grimley, H. N., 130

H., L. E., 130

H., P., 39

H. B. F., 147

H. B. P., 129

H. W. S.-W., 138

Hagedorn, Ann, 211

Halma, Francois, 17-19

Hamel, Jurgen, 217

Hammer, Alma M., tr., 200

Haydon, Henry, 129

Heiland, Fritz, 200

Heine, Heinrich, 144

Henne am Rhyn, Otto, 184

Herschel, Sir William, 30, 47

Hindenburg, Karl F., 45, 159

Hirsch, Gideon M., 89, 112

Hobhouse, Sir Arthur Hobhouse, 1st

    Baron, 174

Hodgkin, John, 139

Hoffmann, Volkmar, 173, 175

Hogan, J. F., 129

Holcroft, Thomas, 59

Hugo, Victor Marie, comte, 61

Hutchinson, John, 71

Hutton, Harry, 226

Ito-dre-casa, 113

J., N., 32

J. B. C., 129

Jens, Petrus, 19

Juni, Ulrich, 7-8

K., C. R., 139

Keiler, Arthur I., 195

Kellogg, Peter C., 150

Kemble, Lucian J., 222

Kewitsch, Georg, 76, 127, 160, 188,  192

Kirwan, Charles de, 155

Koppe, Max, 121

Kulikov, G. S., 212

L., L. Y., 130

L. E. H., 130

L. T. L., 130

Lalande, Joseph Jerome Le Francais                                                       

   de, 43, 47, 50, 136

Lalende.  See  Lalande, Joseph                                                       

   Jerome Le Francais de

Lancaster, Albert B. M., 193

Lardner, Dionysius, 54

Leight, Warren D., 207

Le Lorrain de Vallemont, abbe Pierre, 1

Leo XIII, Pope, 95, 180

Leser, Eugene, 152

Library of Congress, 201

Loch, John W., 139

Lodge, Sir Oliver J., 101, 143

Lofft, Capel, 51

Ludolf, Hiob, the younger, 21

Lycett, Andrew, 214

Lynn, William T., 156

M., E., 58, 129

M. S. F. A., 32

McCormack, Thomas J., 123

McDonald, George E., 83

Mackay, Andrew, 47

M'Knight, D. A., 105

Malachi, pseud., 102

Malden, H. E., 129

Mallemans de Messanges, Claude, 11

Marlay, C. Brinsley, 138

Martin, John F., 228

Maskelyne, Nevil, 30, 47

May, Phil, 140, 216

Maycock, Willoughby, 130

Medal, 41

Medway, 134

Middleton, Fred C., 229

Minton-Senhouse, Robert M., 137

Monnich, Bernhard F., 35

Moller, Daniel W., 26

Music, 37

N., 36

N., C., 30-32

N., C. F., 130

N. G., 28-30

N. J., 32

Need, Richard, 225, 227

New York City, celebrations on 

    Dec. 31, 1900, 187, 196

Nispen, C. van, 22

Nispen, M. van, 18

O., R., 32

Omicron, 32

Only a layman, 134

Orme, Albert, 143

Owen, Arthur S., 101

P., H. B., 129

P., P. P. R., 46

P. H., 39

P. H. B., 129

P. P. R. P., 46

Palumbo, Peter Garth Palumbo, Baron,


Parmentier, Theodore, 169

Payne, William M., 152

Peckham, G. L., 105

Pierpoint, Robert, 138

Pietzker, Friedrich, 64, 123

Porro, Francesco, 114

Prince Consort, 102

Professor of Calculation and

    Chronology, 73

Pullen, H. W., 129

Pye, Henry J., 49, 52

Pythagoras, pseud., 32

Quinn, Jim, 201

R., A., 32

R., R. E., 32

R. C., 32, 50

R. E. R., 32

R. G., 139

R. G. T., 137

R. O., 32

R. W., 32

Rabus, Petrus, 23

Rajna, Michele, 68

Rebeyrol, Yvonne, 219

Reductio ad Absurdum, 103

Reed, E. J., 129

Resol, A., 56

Richardson, Joseph, 129

Rickover, Hyman G., 209

Ridgway, Dick, 205

Ritchie, John, 125

Roberts, Chalmers M., 218

Rondelli, Geminiano, 24

S., A. A., 142

S., A. K., 134

S., B., 29, 32

S.P.Q.R., 137

S.-W., H. W., 138

Saint-Saens, Camille, 126

Sargeaunt, John, 130

Saunders, T. Bailey, 134

Scaletti, Carlo C., 20

Scaliger, pseud., 103

Schiller, Friedrich, 120, 144, 152

Schmid-Dresden, Otto, 37

A School boy, 38

Schram, Robert, 94

Schubring, Gustav, 115

Schurig, Richard, 86

Schwab, Gustav, 179

Schwartz, Hillel, 216

Scocchera, A., 69

A Secretary, 130

Sempronio, 77

Sh., C., 31-32

Sharpe, J. W., 129

Sheridan, Richard Brinsley, 129

Smilowe, Jill, 232

Smith, Charles W., 214

Southey, Robert, 124

Stanley, William F., 135, 147, 154

Steiner, Rudolf, 89

Stephen, Herbert, 103, 132

Steward, Edward, 129

Straker, F. A., 139

Sullivan, Steve, 214

Sykes, Arthur A., 129

T., R. G., 137

Tenbyten, 136

Tennant, John, 101

Ternes, Alan P., 222

Tille, Alexander, 177

Tizio, 77

Trachet, Tim, 224

Turner, G. J., 132

24 Geo. II., c. 23 (Act of Parliament),

    71, 166

Ule, Willi, 168

U.S. Library of Congress, 201

U.S. Naval Observatory, 146, 203

Van Patten, E. H., 85

Verepius, pseud., 61

Vidler, Alexander R., 226

Vince, C. A., 132

W., G., 31

W., R., 32

Waite, C. B., 84

Walford, E., 57, 60

Waller, Berkeley C., 105

Weigel, Erhard, 2, 7

Werner, 33

Werther, 33

West, George E., 81

Westley, Thomas, 129

White, Bill, 209

White, Horatio S., 144

Whitmell, Charles T., 116

Whitney, Craig R., 223

Wilhelm II, German emperor, 88, 92,

    95-96, 101, 128, 154, 165

Wilson, Henry, 138

Winterich, John T., 199

Winterwood, Geoffrey, 170

Wolff, Christian, Freiherr von, 159

Wood, Charles H., 105

World Millennium Ball, 205, 211

Yanney, Benjamin F., 85

Young, T. E., 139

Zedwhyeks, 73

Zeno, pseud., 138

Zero year, 36, 64, 86-87, 102, 123,  127,

135, 141, 153, 158, 168,

    184-185, 192, 214, 227, 229

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