might live a year and a half under ideal conditions. These include
the right temperature, food supply, and humidity. Generally speaking,
though, an adult flea only lives for 2 or 3 months. Without a host
for food, a flea's life might be as short as a few days. But with
ample food supply, the adult flea will often live up to 100 days.
- BugGuide: Order Siphonaptera - Fleas -
This site, from the Iowa State University, Department of Entomology, includes basic information on fleas and several photographs.
- Fleas -
BBC Radio 4 Natural Histories program on fleas with links to related clips and articles.
- NC State University: General Entomology - Siphonaptera -
This fact sheet provides the basics on the flea species, behavior, ecology, life history, and management.
of Florida: Fleas - This site sponsored by the Institute
of Food and Agriculture Services provides comprehensive
information about fleas as well as information about pesticides
used in the control of fleas.
Institute, St. Petersburg Fleas (Siphonaptera) Homepage
- This site is solely devoted to information about fleas.
It contains extensive information about the biology, morphology,
distribution, taxonomy, hosts, images, importance, and
of fleas. It also contains a database, references, and
Joanna. Fleas. New York, Morrow, 1973. 62 p. (Juvenile)
- Krasnov, Boris R. Functional and evolutionary ecology of fleas : a model for ecological parasitology. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 593 p.
Brendan. The compleat flea. London, Murray, 1969.
- Stevens, Kathryn. Fleas. Chanhassen, MN., Child's
World, c.2001. 32 p. (Juvenile)
more print resources...
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in the Library of Congress Online
Adult Cat Flea. Photo from the
Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet