First Indicator  Second Indicator 

Type of scale 0  Scale indeterminable/No scale recorded 1  Single scale 3  Range of scales 
Type of ring #  Not applicable 0  Outer ring 1  Exclusion ring 
Subfield Codes  



Contains cartographic mathematical data, including scale, projection, and/or coordinates in coded form. For digital items, the coordinates can represent a bounding rectangle, the outline of the area covered and/or the outline of an interior area not covered. For celestial charts, it may also contain zone, declination data, and/or right ascension data, and/or equinox. For cartographic material, there should be an 034 field corresponding to each 255 field in a record.
For noncartographic materials (i.e., images, graphic materials, textual materials, etc.), geographic coordinates are recorded to represent the position of the structure, site or feature depicted or described in the resource, or the geographic location from which the image was captured. In this case, geographic coordinates may be recorded in field 034 without the presence of a corresponding field 255 in the record.
For relief models and other threedimensional cartographic items, if a single set of scales is used in field 255 (i.e., one horizontal and one vertical scale), the first indicator position in field 034 contains value 1, the denominator of the representative fraction for the horizontal scale is recorded in subfield $b, and the denominator of the representative fraction for the vertical scale is recorded in subfield $c. If multiple or varying sets of scales are recorded as a range, the smaller and larger denominators for the horizontal scales are recorded in the first and second subfield $b respectively, the smaller and larger denominators for the vertical scales are recorded in the first and second subfield $c, respectively, and the first indicator position contains value 3.
First Indicator  Type of scale
Specifies the type of scale information given.
Used when no representative fraction is given in field 255 or no field 255 is present in the record.
Single horizontal scale.
Scale consists of a range of scales.
Second Indicator  Type of ring
Type of ring for digital cartographic items.
Type of ring is not applicable.
Coordinate information represents the closed nonintersecting boundary of the area covered.
Coordinate information represents the closed nonintersecting boundary of an area within the Gpolygon outer ring that is excluded.
$a  Category of scale
Onecharacter alphabetic code indicating the type of scale of the item.
Used even when a specific scale is not recorded (first indicator position contains value 0). For noncartographic materials (i.e. images, graphic materials, textual materials, etc.) subfield $a is not used. The codes used in subfield $a are:
034  1#$aa$b100000 
Used for celestial charts.
Any other type of scale, for example, a time scale, quantitative statistical scale, etc.
If the scale statement is the only subfield given in field 255 and if the scale statement does not contain a representative fraction, field 034 will contain only subfield $a.
034  0#$aa 
$b  Constant ratio linear horizontal scale
Denominator of the representative fraction for the horizontal scale.
The larger scale (smaller number) is generally given first.
034  1#$aa$b1000000  
034  3#$aa$b18000$b28000 
$c  Constant ratio linear vertical scale
Denominator of the representative fraction for the vertical scale of relief models and other threedimensional cartographic items.
The larger scale (smaller number) is generally given first.
034  1#$aa$b744000$c96000 
$d  Coordinates  westernmost longitude
$e  Coordinates  easternmost longitude
$f  Coordinates  northernmost latitude
$g  Coordinates  southernmost latitude
Subfields $d, $e, $f, and $g individually identify the four coordinates of the item. Subfield $d represents the westernmost extent of the item; subfield $e, the easternmost extent; subfield $f, the northernmost extent; and subfield $g, the southernmost extent. The abbreviations for the hemispheres are: N = North, S = South, E = East, W = West.
Subfields $d, $e, $f, and $g always appear together. The coordinates may be recorded in the form hdddmmss (hemispheredegreesminutesseconds), however, other forms are also allowed, such as decimal degrees. The subelements are each right justified and unused positions contain zeros.
Examples in degrees/minutes/seconds: hdddmmss (hemispheredegreesminutesseconds):
034  1#$aa$b22000000$dW1800000$eE1800000$fN0840000$gS0700000  
034  1#$aa$b253440$dE0790000$eE0860000$fN0200000$gN0120000 [The above two examples illustrate records for flat maps or flat maps in atlases.] 
Example in decimal degrees: hddd.dddddd (hemispheredegrees.decimal degrees):
034  1#$aa$dE079.533265$eE086.216635$fS012.583377$gS020.419532 
Example in decimal degrees: +ddd.dddddd (hemisphere[+/]degrees.decimal degrees) (“+” for N and E, ““ for S and W; the plus sign is optional):
034  1#$aa$d+079.533265$e+086.216635$f012.583377$g020.419532 
Example without the optional plus sign:
034  1#$aa$d079.533265$e086.216635$f012.583377$g020.419532 
Example in decimal minutes: hdddmm.mmmm (hemispheredegreesminutes.decimal minutes):
034  1#$aa$dE07932.5332$eE08607.4478$fS01235.5421$gS02028.9704 
Example in decimal seconds: hdddmmss.sss (hemispheredegreesminutesseconds.decimal seconds):
034  1#$aa$dE0793235.575$eE0860727.350$fS0123536.895$gS0202858.125 
If the coordinates are given in terms of a center point rather than outside limits, the longitude and latitude which form the central axis are recorded twice (in subfields $d and $e and in $f and $g, respectively).
034  1#$aa$b75000$dW0950500$eW0950500$fN0303000$gN0303000  
034  1#$aa$dW119.697222$eW119.697222$fN034.420833$gN034.420833  
034  1#$aa$d119.697222$e119.697222$f+034.420833$g+034.420833  
034  1#$aa$dW11941.833333$eW11941.833333$fN03425.250000$gN03425.250000 
034  0#$dW0735848$eW0735848$fN0404554$gN0404554 [Coordinates of Carnegie Hall, a concert venue depicted in an image.] 
$h  Angular scale
Scale, if known, for celestial charts.
$j  Declination  northern limit
$k  Declination  southern limit
$m  Right ascension  eastern limit
$n  Right ascension  western limit
Subfields $j, $k, $m, and $n are used with celestial charts or celestial charts in atlases and contain the limits of the declination and the right ascension.
Subfields $j and $k are each eight characters in length and record the declination in the form hdddmmss (hemispheredegreesminutesseconds). The degree, minute and second elements are each right justified and the unused positions contain zeros. (If declination of center is known, it is repeated in both subfields).
Subfields $m and $n are each six characters in length and record the right ascension in the form hhmmss (hourminuteseconds). The hour, minute and second elements are each right justified and the unused positions contain zeros. (If the right ascension of center is known, it is repeated in both subfields).
034  0#$ab$jN0300000$kN0300000$m021800$n021800 
$p  Equinox
Equinox or epoch for a celestial chart. Usually recorded in the form yyyy (year) according to the Gregorian calendar, but may include a decimal including the month in the form yyyy.mm (yearmonth).
034  0#$ab$p1950 
$r  Distance from earth
Distance of celestial bodies, such as planets or stars, from the Earth in lightyears in star atlases.
$s  Gring latitude
Latitude of a point of the gring.
$t  Gring longitude
Longitude of a point of the gring.
$x  Beginning date
Beginning of the time frame specific to the coordinates. The date is structured in the form of yyyymmdd. When no date is recorded, it is assumed that the coordinate information is current.
$y  Ending date
Ending of the time frame specific to the coordinates. The date is structured in the form of yyyymmdd. When no date is recorded, it is assumed that the coordinate information is current.
034  0#$dE0110000$eE0320000$fN0690000$gN0550000$x17210000$y19171200  
034  0#$dE0110000$eE0240000$fN0690000$gN0550000$x19171200 
$z  Name of extraterrestrial body
Name of a planet or other extraterrestrial body specified when the coordinate data recorded in subfields $d, $e, $f and $g do not describe an entity on Earth.
034  0#$dW2450000$eE2570000$fN0160000$gN0190000$zMars$2gpn 
$0  Authority record control number or standard number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$1  Real World Object URI
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$2  Source
MARC code that identifies the source of the data recorded in field 034. If different sources are recorded, separate fields should be used. Code from: Cartographic Data Source Codes.
$3  Materials specified
Information that specifies the part of the entity to which the field applies.
$6  Linkage
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
$8  Field link and sequence number
See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.
Punctuation  Field 034 does not end with a mark of punctuation.
In coordinates, the decimal sign may be either the period or the comma.
034  1#$aa$dE079,533265$eE086,216635$fS012,583377$gS020,419532 
034  1#$aa$b7500$dE1254312.0$eE1254755.7$fN0383301.0$gΝ0382846.0 
Value 2 was made obsolete when field 034 was made repeatable in 1982.
Code c (Other type of scale) was made obsolete in 1997. [CAN/MARC only]