Library of Congress >> MARC >> Bibliographic >> 841-88X  >> 856

856 - Electronic Location and Access (R)


MARC 21 Bibliographic - full
December 2022

First Indicator Second Indicator
Access method
# - No information provided
0 - Email
1 - FTP
2 - Remote login (Telnet)
3 - Dial-up
4 - HTTP
7 - Method specified in subfield $2

Relationship
# - No information provided
0 - Resource
1 - Version of resource
2 - Related resource
3 - Component part(s) of resource
4 - Version of component part(s) of resource
8 - No display constant generated


Subfield Codes
  • $a - Host name (R)
  • $c - Compression information (R)
  • $d - Path (R)
  • $e - Data provenance (R)
  • $f - Electronic name (R)
  • $g - Persistent identifier (R)
  • $h - Non-functioning Uniform Resource Identifier (R)
  • $l - Standardized information governing access (R)
  • $m - Contact for access assistance (R)
  • $n - Terms governing access (R)
  • $o - Operating system (NR)
  • $p - Port (NR)
  • $q - Electronic format type (R)
  • $r - Standardized information governing use and reproduction (R)
  • $s - File size (R)
  • $t - Terms governing use and reproduction (R)
  • $u - Uniform Resource Identifier (R)
  • $v - Hours access method available (R)
  • $w - Record control number (R)
  • $x - Nonpublic note (R)
  • $y - Link text (R)
  • $z - Public note (R)
  • $2 - Access method (NR)
  • $3 - Materials specified (NR)
  • $6 - Linkage (NR)
  • $7 - Access status (NR)
  • $8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE

Information needed to locate and access an electronic resource. The field may be used in a bibliographic record for a resource when that resource or a subset of it is available electronically. In addition, it may be used to locate and access an electronic version of a non-electronic resource described in the bibliographic record or a related electronic resource. The phrase "networked electronic resource" is used to refer to an electronic resource for which content is accessed using a network protocol like telnet, http, ftp, etc.

Field 856 is repeated when the location data elements vary (the URL in subfield $u or subfields $a and $d, when used). It is also repeated when more than one access method is used, different portions of the item are available electronically, mirror sites are recorded, different formats/resolutions with different URLs are indicated, and related items are recorded.


GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS

INDICATORS

First Indicator - Access method

Access method to the electronic resource. If the resource is available by more than one access method, the field is repeated with data appropriate to each method. The methods defined are the main TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocols. When recording a URL in subfield $u, the value corresponds to the access method (URL scheme), which is also the first element in the string.

# - No information provided
0 - Email

Access to the electronic resource is through electronic mail (email). Access includes subscribing to an electronic journal or electronic forum through software intended to be used by an email system.

856 0#$umailto:[email protected]
1 - FTP

Access to the electronic resource is through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

856 1#$uftp://path.net/pub/docs/urn2urc.ps
2 - Remote login (Telnet)

Access to the electronic resource is through remote login (Telnet).

856 2#$utelnet://pucc.princeton.edu
3 - Dial-up

Access to the electronic resource is through a conventional telephone line (dial-up). Additional information in subfields of the record may enable the user to connect to the resource.

4 - HTTP

Access to the electronic resource is through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

856 40$uhttp://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/contents.all.html
856 4#$uhttp://hdl.handle.net/loc.test/gotthome$uurn:hdl.loc.test/gotthome
7 - Method specified in subfield $2

Access to the electronic resource is through a method other than the defined values and for which an identifying code is given in subfield $2 (Source of access).

856 7#$3b&w film copy neg.$ddag$f3d01926$2file

Second Indicator - Relationship

Relationship between a networked electronic resource at the location identified in field 856 and the resource described in the record as a whole.

# - No information provided

No information is provided about the relationship of the networked electronic resource identified in field 856 to the bibliographic resource described by the record as a whole.

0 - Resource

Record describes a networked electronic resource. Electronic location in field 856 is for the complete networked electronic resource described by the record as a whole. If the electronic location in field 856 is for one or more component parts of the resource represented by the record as a whole, use second indicator value 3 (Component part(s) of resource).

245 10$aProceedings of the Seminar on Cataloging Digital Documents, October 12-14, 1994$cUniversity of Virginia Library, Charlottesville, and the Library of Congress.
856 40$u//www.loc.gov/catdir/semdigdocs/seminar.html
245 10$aRoswell /$cFederal Bureau of Investigation.
300 ##$a1 online resource (1 unnumbered page) :$bdigital, PDF File
856 40$uhttp://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS98141$70
1 - Version of resource

Record describes a non-electronic resource, e.g., a printed book, or a non-networked electronic resource, e.g., CDROM. The electronic location in field 856 is for a networked electronic version of the resource described by the record as a whole. In this case, the bibliographic record itself does not represent the networked electronic resource but a networked electronic version is available.

245 00$aAmerican quarterly.
856 41$uhttp://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american%5Fquarterly/
245 00$aHerbert Hoover National Historic Site, Iowa :$bJunior Ranger activity book.
300 ##$a14 pages :$billustrations (chiefly color) ;$c28 cm
856 41$uhttps://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo105955$70
2 - Related resource

Electronic location in field 856 is for a networked electronic resource that has a clear, specific, and direct bibliographic relationship to the bibliographic resource described by the record as a whole but is not a component part of the resource. For resources that have only a subject relationship to the resource described, use 6XX fields. When there is uncertainty whether a resource may be a component part of the whole or a related resource, prefer second indicator value 2.

245 00$kPapers,$f1932-1970$g(bulk 1932-1965)
856 42$3Finding aid$u//www.loc.gov/ammem/ead/jackson.sgm
100 1#$aAvila, Jennie,$ecomposer,$elyricist,$eperformer.
245 10$aCivil War stories in song /$cby Jennie Avila.
500 ##$aSource stories, reference photos, and lyrics available online.
856 42$3Source stories, reference photos, lyrics$uhttp://www.jennieavila.com/$70
3 - Component part(s) of resource

Record describes a networked electronic resource. The electronic location in field 856 is for one or more component parts of the complete electronic resource described by the record as a whole. The component parts are portions of the resource, such as a table of contents or a sample chapter. Consider each of multiple fields 856 that add up to a complete representation of the networked electronic resource to be a component part. When appropriate, use subfield $3 to specify the component part(s) to which the field applies. When there is uncertainty whether a resource may be a component part of the whole or a related resource, use second indicator value 2 (Related resource).

245 10$aExplosion and fire at the Macondo well (11 fatalities, 17 seriously injured, and serious environmental damage) :$bDeepwater Horizon rig, Mississippi Canyon Block #252, Gulf of Mexico, April 20, 2010 /$cUS Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.
300 ##$a1 online resource (2 volumes) :$bcolor illustrations.
856 43$3Volume 1$uhttp://www.csb.gov/assets/1/7/Vol_1_Final.pdf$70
856 43$3Volume 2$uhttp://www.csb.gov/assets/1/7/Vol_2_Final_Version.pdf$70
4 - Version of component part(s) of resource

Record describes a non-electronic or a non-networked electronic resource. The electronic location in field 856 is for a version of one or more component parts of the resource described by the record as a whole. The component parts are versions of portions of the resource, such as a table of contents or a sample chapter. When appropriate, use subfield $3 to specify the component part(s) to which the field applies. When there is uncertainty whether a resource may be a component part of the whole or a related resource, prefer second indicator value 2 (Related resource).

245 00$aAnalyzing qualitative data /$cedited by Alan Bryman and Robert G. Burgess
856 44$3Table of contents$u//www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/93-3471.html
245 10$aLettere e biglietti /$cGoliarda Sapienza ; a cura di Angelo Pellegrino.
300 ##$a421 pages ;$c22 cm
856 44$3Table of contents only$uhttps://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/cassalini18/4738323.pdf$70
8 - No display constant generated

SUBFIELD CODES

$a - Host name

Fully qualified domain (host name) of the electronic location. It contains a network address which is repeated if there is more than one address for the same host.

$c - Compression information

Information about the compression of a file, in particular, whether a specific program is required to decompress the file.

May be repeated if two compression programs are used, noting the latest compression first.

$d - Path

Path is the series of logical directory and subdirectory names that indicate where a file is stored. The filename itself is recorded in subfield $f. This may be a surrogate path leading the user to the host where complete and current access information is stored in a locator table.

$e - Data provenance

See description of this subfield in Appendix J: Data Provenance Subfields.

$f - Electronic name

Electronic name of a file as it exists in the directory/subdirectory indicated in subfield $d on the host identified in subfield $a. Subfield $f may be repeated if a single logical file has been divided into parts and stored under different names. In this case, the separate parts should constitute a single bibliographic item. In all other cases, a file that may be retrieved under different filenames contains multiple occurrences of field 856, each with its corresponding electronic name in subfield $f. A filename may include wildcard characters (e.g., * or ?) if applicable. Use subfield $z to explain how files are named, if needed.

$g - Persistent identifier

Persistent identifier (PID) assigned to the resource for automated access and other resolution services by a PID resolver. PIDs should be provided as actionable hyperlinks (e.g., HTTP URI format).

If a PID resolves to more than one URI, these URIs may be provided in the same 856 field, with repeated subfield $u.

$h - Non-functioning Uniform Resource Identifier

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which is no longer functional, for example, due to link rot, content drift, etc.

Subfield $h may be repeated if there is more than one non-functioning URI. A note on the status change (including the date) may be added in either in subfield $x or subfield $z, depending on the local policy.

$l - Standardized information governing access

The subfield contains standardized information about the access status of a resource. The information may be in the form of a value from a controlled vocabulary, or a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). If the information is a value from a controlled vocabulary, it is preceded by the appropriate value from the list of Access Restriction Term Source Codes, enclosed in parentheses. When the information is given in the form of a Web retrieval protocol, e.g., HTTP URI, no preceding parenthetical is used.

This subfield is intended to contain information which is an equivalent to that recorded using subfields $f, $2 and $u of field 506.

$m - Contact for access assistance

Name of a contact for assistance in accessing a resource at the host specified in subfield $a. For addresses relating to the content of the resource itself (i.e. the item represented by the title recorded in field 245) rather than access assistance, field 270 is used. If the address data is the same, use field 270.

$n - Terms governing access

The subfield contains textual information about the access status of a resource.

This subfield is intended to contain information which is an equivalent to that recorded using subfield $a of field 506.

$o - Operating system

For informational purposes, the operating system used by the host specified in subfield $a may be indicated here. Conventions for the path and filenames may be dependent on the operating system of the host. For the operating system of the resource itself (i.e., the item represented by the title recorded in field 245), rather than the operating system of the host making it available, field 753 (Technical Details Access to Computer Files), subfield $c (Operating system) is used.

$p - Port

Portion of the address that identifies a process or service in the host.

$q - Electronic format type

Identification of the electronic format type and version. Electronic format type should be specified with a code from the list of registered Internet Media Types (MIME types), taken from: IANA Media Types. If necessary (e.g., in order to specify a file format version to support access or digital preservation) additional information, such as PRONOM Unique Identifier (PUID) codes, may be included in addition to the information provided by the MIME Type by repeating subfield $q.

$r - Standardized information governing use and reproduction

The subfield contains standardized information about the use and reproduction rights of a resource. The information may be in the form of a value from a controlled vocabulary, or a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). If the information is a value from a controlled vocabulary, it is preceded by the appropriate value from the list of Access Restriction Term Source Codes, enclosed in parentheses. When the information is given in the form of a Web retrieval protocol, e.g., HTTP URI, no preceding parenthetical is used.

This subfield is intended to contain information which is an equivalent to that recorded using subfields $f, $2 and $u of field 540.

$s - File size

Size of the file as stored under the filename indicated in subfield $f. It is generally expressed in terms of 8-bit bytes (octets). It may be repeated in cases where the filename is repeated and directly follows the subfield $f to which it applies. This information is not given for journals, since field 856 relates to the entire title, not to particular issues.

$t - Terms governing use and reproduction

The subfield contains textual information about the use and reproduction rights of a resource.

This subfield is intended to contain information which is an equivalent to that recorded using subfield $a of field 540.

$u - Uniform Resource Identifier

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which provides standard syntax for locating an object using existing Internet protocols or by resolution of a persistent identifier (PID). Field 856 is structured to allow for the creation of a URL from the concatenation of other separate 856 subfields. Subfield $u may be used instead of those separate subfields or in addition to them.

Subfield $u may be repeated if more than one URI is recorded.

URIs which no longer function to provide access to the described resource may be transferred to 856 $h.

$v - Hours access method available

Hours that access to an electronic resource is available at the location indicated in this field. If the record is for a system or service, the hours of availability are recorded in field 307 (Hours, etc.). This subfield is only used to record hours of availability of the specific location indicated in field 856.

$w - Record control number

System control number of the related record preceded by the MARC code, enclosed in parentheses, for the agency to which the control number applies. The data in the subfield links field 856 to the MARC record having the same data in a control number field. See: MARC Code List for Organizations for a listing of sources used in MARC 21 records.

$x - Nonpublic note

Note relating to the electronic location of the source identified in the field. The note is written in a form that is not adequate or intended for public display. It may also contain processing information about the file at the location specified.

$y - Link text

Used for display in place of the URL in subfield $u. When subfield $y is present, applications should use the contents of subfield $y as the link instead of the content of subfield $u when linking to the destination in subfield $u. The use of the link text is independent of any decision concerning the second indicator value.

$z - Public note

Note relating to the electronic location of the source identified in the field. The note is written in a form that is adequate or intended for public display.

$2 - Access method

Access method when the first indicator position contains value 7. Code from: Electronic Access Methods Code List.

$3 - Materials specified

Part of the described material to which the field applies

856 42$3Finding aid$u//www.loc.gov/ammem/ead/jackson.sgm
856 42$3Author's list of corrections, adjustments, and additions$uhttp://personalpages.manchester.ac.uk/staff/david.fallows/appendix.pdf$70

$6 - Linkage

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

$7 - Access status

Code indicating the availability of access to the networked electronic resource the address of which appears in subfield $u. Subfield $7 applies to all subfields $u present in the field.

0 - Open access

The networked electronic resource is freely and openly accessible online to everyone, without restriction, login, or payment.

1 - Restricted access

The networked electronic resource is not freely and openly accessible online.

u - Unspecified
z - Other
856 40$3HathiTrust Digital Library, Full view$uhttp://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/1654047.html$70

$8 - Field link and sequence number

See description of this subfield in Appendix A: Control Subfields.

EXAMPLES

856 41$uhttp://www.jstor.org/journals/0277903x.html
856 40$uhttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm$qtext/html
856 41$uhttp://purl.oclc.org/OCLC/OLUC/34907403/1$xhttp://export.uswest.com/
856 1#$uftp://harvarda.harvard.edu
856 42$3French version$uhttp://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/reports/0297rpt/0297-ft.htm
856 42$3Essays from annual reports$uhttp://woodrow.mpls.frb.fed.us/pubs/ar/index.html
856 1#$uftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/mirrors/info-mac/util/color-system-icons.hqx$s16874 bytes
856 2#$utelnet://maine.maine.edu
856 1#$uftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/mirrors2/win3/games/atmoids.zip$cdecompress with PKUNZIP.exe$xcannot verify because of transfer difficulty
856 4#$zPart of the Ovid Mental Health Collection (MHC). Follow instructions on MedMenu page for Ovid login.$uhttp://info.med.yale.edu/medmenu/info%5Fcbc.html
856 40$uhttp://www.ref.oclc.org:2000$zAddress for accessing the journal using authorization number and password through OCLC FirstSearch Electronic Collections Online. Subscription to online journal required for access to abstracts and full text
856 4#$uhttp://susdl.fcla.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/~fdl/fdlcgi?FA00000011%2Fjpg$yElectronic resource (JPEG)
856 4#$uhttp://susdl.fcla.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/~fdl/fdlcgi?FA00000011%2Fpdf$yElectronic resource (PDF)
856 40$l(star)Unrestricted online access$lhttp://purl.org/coar/access_right/c_abf2$nOpen access$r(cc)CC BY-NC-ND 4.0$rhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/$tAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International$qapplication/pdf$uhttps://freidok.uni-freiburg.de/data/14656$70
856 40$hhttp://mathnet.kaist.ac.kr$uhttp://www.koreascience.or.kr/journal/E1TAAE/v2n1.page$uhttp://www.ksiam.org/
856 40$ghttps://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-12-4129-1$uhttps://www.doria.fi/handle/10024/182600$qapplication/pdf$qhttps://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/PRONOM/fmt/276
856 2#$aanthrax.micro.umn.edu
856 1#$amaine.maine.edu$cMust be decompressed with PKUNZIP$fresource.zip
856 0#$akentvm.bitnet$facadlist file1$facadlist file2$facadlist file3
856 0#$auicvm.bitnet$fAN2
856 2#$amadlab.sprl.umich.edu$p3000
856 10$zFTP access to PostScript version includes groups of article files with .pdf extension$aftp.cdc.gov$d/pub/EIS/vol*no*/adobe$f*.pdf$qapplication/pdf

INPUT CONVENTIONS

Embedded Holdings Information - When holdings information is embedded in a MARC bibliographic record, multiple occurrences of field 856 may be used if the information does not include other holdings information fields that must be linked to a specific field 856 for intelligibility. Subfield $3 may be used to specify the parts of an item to which information in field 856 applies.

Display Constants - Introductory terms or phrases such as Electronic resource:, Networked electronic resource:, Networked electronic version of resource:, etc. are not carried in the MARC record. They may be system generated as display constants associated with the second indicator value.

Second indicator Display constant
# Electronic resource:
0 Networked electronic resource:
1 Networked electronic version of resource:
2 Related networked electronic resource:
3 Networked component part of electronic resource:
4 Networked component part of resource:
8 [no display constant generated]

Spacing underscore and tilde in URLs - In February 1994, additional characters in the MARC character set were defined to both accommodate existing bibliographic needs and to align it with the ASCII and ANSEL character sets. Both the spacing underscore and the spacing tilde were added at the time because of the need in directory and file names for electronic resources.

Many systems have implemented these characters, however, for systems that have not implemented the spacing underscore and tilde, the following alternative characters may be used:

%5F for spacing underscore
%7E for spacing tilde

CONTENT DESIGNATOR HISTORY

Indicator 2 - Relationship [REDESCRIBED, 2022]

In 2022 Indicator 2 and its values were updated to reflect contemporary usage, clarify the defined relationships, allow for identification of component parts, and support access to online resources in an environment dominated by web resources.

# - No information provided [REDESCRIBED, 2022]
0 - Resource [REDESCRIBED, 2022]
1 - Version of resource [REDESCRIBED, 2022]
2 - Related resource [REDESCRIBED, 2022]
3 - Component part(s) of resource [NEW, 2022]
4 - Version of component part(s) of resource [NEW, 2022]
$b - Access number [OBSOLETE, 2020]
$e - Data provenance [NEW, 2022]
$g - Electronic name - End of range [REDEFINED, 1997]
$g - Uniform Resource Name [OBSOLETE, 2000]

Because subfield $g (Electronic name - End of range) was rarely if ever used, it was redefined as Uniform Resource Name in 1997. It was subsequently made obsolete in favor of recording the URN in subfield $u.

$g - Persistent identifier [NEW, 2022]
$h - Processor of request [OBSOLETE, 2020]
$h - Non-functioning Uniform Resource Identifier [NEW, 2022]
$i - Instruction [OBSOLETE, 2020]
$j - Bits per second [OBSOLETE, 2020]
$k - Password [OBSOLETE, 2020]
$l - Logon [OBSOLETE, 2020]
$l - Standardized information governing access [NEW, 2022]
$n - Name of location of host [OBSOLETE, 2020]
$n - Terms governing access [NEW, 2022]
$q - File transfer mode [REDEFINED, 1997]

Subfield $q was defined to contain an indication of whether the file was transferred as binary or ASCII. It was redefined to contain type of electronic format.

$q - Electronic format type [CHANGED, 2022] [REDESCRIBED, 2022]

Subfield $q was made repeatable and was redescribed in order to more accurately specify electronic file formats and their versions.

$r - Settings [OBSOLETE, 2020]
$r - Standardized information governing use and reproduction [NEW, 2022]
$t - Terminal emulation [OBSOLETE, 2020]
$t - Terms governing use and reproduction [NEW, 2022]
$u - Uniform Resource Identifier [RENAMED, 2000]

Prior to 1999, subfield $u was defined as repeatable. It was changed to not repeatable in favor of repeating the field due to ambiguity in determining when the subfield could be repeatable. Subfield $u was changed back to repeatable and renamed in 2000 to record URNs after subfield $g was made obsolete.

$u - Uniform Resource Identifier [REDESCRIBED, 2022]

The definition of subfield $u was broadened in order to accommodate the recording of persistent identifiers (PIDs) and multiple URLs in a single 856 field.

$y - Link text [NEW, 2000]
$7 - Access status [NEW, 2019]

Library of Congress >> MARC >> Bibliographic >> 841-88X  >> 856
(12/20/2022)
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