Library of Congress >> MARC >> Community Information >> Appendix E

Appendix E - Initial Definite and Indefinite Articles

MARC 21 Community Information
December 2023

First indicator position in fields 630 (Subject Added Entry - Publication Title), 730 (Added Entry - Publication Title), and 740 (Added Entry - Specific Program Title), and the second indicator position in fields 245 (Title), and 440 (Series Title) contain a numeric value (0-9) that specifies the number of character positions associated with an initial definite or indefinite article to be disregarded in sorting and filing processes. Initial articles may also simply be deleted in the formulation of the heading. If the initial article is retained but is not to be disregarded in sorting and filing processes, the indicator position contains value 0.
The list below of definite and indefinite articles and the languages in which they are used is arranged alphabetically by the article.
This list also appears in both the MARC 21 Format for Authority Data and the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data .
a English, Galician, Haitian Creole, Hungarian, Portuguese, Romanian, Scots, Yiddish,
a' Scottish Gaelic
al Romanian
al- Arabic, Baluchi, Brahui, Panjabi (Perso-Arabic script), Persian, Turkish, Urdu
                          (Note: al- is meant to cover all of the spellings in romanization (e.g., "as" in "as-sijill"))
am Scottish Gaelic
an English, Haitian Creole, Irish, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Yiddish
an t- Irish, Scottish Gaelic
ane Scots
ang Tagalog
ang mga Tagalog
as Galician, Portuguese
az Hungarian
bat Basque
bir Turkish
d' English
da Shetland English
das German
de Danish, Dutch, English, Frisian, Norwegian, Swedish
dei Norwegian
dem German
den Danish, German, Norwegian, Swedish
der German, Yiddish
des German, Walloon
det Danish, Norwegian, Swedish,
di Yiddish
die Afrikaans, German, Yiddish,
dos Yiddish
e Norwegian
'e Frisian
een Dutch
eene Dutch
egy Hungarian
ei Norwegian
ein German, Norwegian, Walloon,
eine German
einem German
einen German
einer German
eines German
eit Norwegian
el Catalan, Spanish
el- Arabic
els Catalan
en Catalan, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
enne Walloon
et Danish, Norwegian
ett Swedish
eyn Yiddish
eyne Yiddish
gl' Italian
gli Italian
ha- Hebrew
hai Classical Greek, Greek
he Hawaiian
Classical Greek, Greek
he- Hebrew
heis Greek
hen Greek
hena Greek
henas Greek
het Dutch
hin Icelandic
hina Icelandic
hinar Icelandic
hinir Icelandic
hinn Icelandic
hinna Icelandic
hinnar Icelandic
hinni Icelandic
hins Icelandic
hinu Icelandic
hinum Icelandic
hið Icelandic
ho Classical Greek, Greek
hoi Classical Greek, Greek
i Italian
ih' Provencal
il Italian, Provencal/Occitan
il- Maltese
in Frisian
it Frisian
ka Hawaiian
ke Hawaiian
l' Catalan, French, Italian, Provencal/Occitan, Walloon
l- Maltese
la Catalan, Esperanto, French, Haitian Creole, Italian, Provencal/Occitan, Spanish
lan Haitian Creole
las Provencal/Occitan, Spanish
le French, Italian, Provencal/ Occitan
les Catalan, French, Provencal/Occitan, Walloon
lh Provencal/Occitan
lhi Provencal/Occitan
li Provencal/Occitan
lis Provencal/Occitan
lo Italian, Provencal/Occitan, Spanish
los Provencal/Occitan, Spanish
lou Provencal/Occitan
lu Provencal/Occitan
mga Tagalog
mia Greek
'n Afrikaans, Dutch, Frisian
na Hawaiian, Irish, Scottish Gaelic
nan Haitian Creole
na h- Irish, Scottish Gaelic
njē Albanian
ny Malagasy
'o Neapolitan Italian
o Galician, Hawaiian, Portuguese, Romanian
on Haitian Creole
os Portuguese
'r Icelandic
's German
't Dutch, Frisian
ta Classical Greek, Greek
tais Classical Greek
tas Classical Greek
Classical Greek
tēn Classical Greek, Greek
tēs Classical Greek, Greek
the English
to Classical Greek, Greek
Classical Greek
tois Classical Greek
ton Classical Greek, Greek
tōn Classical Greek, Greek
tou Classical Greek, Greek
um Portuguese
uma Portuguese
un Catalan, French, Italian, Provencal/Occitan, Romanian, Spanish
un' Italian
una Catalan, Italian, Provencal/Occitan, Spanish
une French
unei Romanian
unha Galician
uno Italian, Provencal/Occitan
uns Provencal/Occitan
unui Romanian
us Provencal/Occitan
y Welsh
ye English
yo Haitian Creole
yon Haitian Creole
yr Welsh

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