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MARC DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 2016-DP09

DATE: December 9, 2015
REVISED:

NAME: Coding Named Events in the MARC 21 Authority and Bibliographic Formats

SOURCE: OCLC

SUMMARY: This discussion paper presents options for coding of named events used as subject access points in the MARC Authority and Bibliographic formats.

KEYWORDS: Named Events (AD, BD); Subject Access Points (AD, BD); Faceted Subject Terminology (AD, BD); FAST (AD, BD); Field 611 (BD); Field X11 (AD, BD); Field 647 (BD); Field X47 (AD, BD)

RELATED: 2002-DP03, 2002-13

STATUS/COMMENTS:
12/09/15 – Made available to the MARC community for discussion.

01/09/16 – Results of MARC Advisory Committee discussion: The discussion and a straw vote demonstrated that most of MAC preferred Option 2 (define a new X47 series of fields) on the basis that it would be desirable to maintain a distinction between named events which cannot be regarded as responsible agents and those which can (in existing X11 fields).  OCLC will pursue Option 2 in a proposal and will add $c and $d for place and date.


Discussion Paper No. 2016-DP09: Coding Named Events

1. BACKGROUND

The implementation and use of FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) within OCLC’s WorldCat database has resulted in questions concerning the coding of certain types of facets. FAST separates subject terminology into distinct facets, i.e., personal names, corporate names, geographic names, chronology, events, form, titles, and topics. Most of these various subject facets are readily accommodated by Bibliographic format tags 600, 610, 630, 648, 650, 651, and 655.

The exception is tag 611 which has been used to code named events whether a meeting or conference (per the definition of the X11 series of access points) or any other named events including battles, earthquakes, famines, financial crises, hurricanes, riots, strikes, volcanic eruptions, wars, etc.

Examples of the current bibliographic coding practice:

611 07 $aBunker Hill, Battle of (Boston, Massachusetts : 1775)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01710024

611 27 $aSan Fernando Earthquake (California : 1971)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755420

611 27 $aFamine (Ireland : 1845-1852)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353092

611 27 $aGlobal Financial Crisis (2008-2009)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755654

611 27 $aHurricane Katrina (2005)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755264

611 27 $aWatts Riot (Los Angeles, California : 1965)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01404356

611 27 $aCoal Strike (Great Britain : 1984-1985)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst00865219

611 27 $aEruption of Mount Saint Helens (Washington : 1980)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353018

611 27 $aWorld War (1939-1945)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01180924

This coding practice has resulted in confusion and questions from catalogers because the existing definition of bibliographic tag 611 limits its use to meeting or conference names in addition to a narrow list of other types found among the ambiguous headings listed in MARC 21 Bibliographic Format, Appendix E, including athletic contests, competitions, contests, expeditions (military or scientific), expositions, fairs, festivals, games (events), parades, sports events, tournaments, etc.

Appendix E also lists events as either tag 650 or X11. However, that does not make it clear that all named events needed in FAST are legitimately coded 611.

2. DISCUSSION

Clear definitions and predictable coding practices are needed to accommodate coding of named events. Clear definitions and predictable coding practices in this area would potentially benefit other subject access schemes as well as FAST.

FAST does not make use of coding available in tag 654 (Faceted Topical Terms), opting instead for the differentiation of facets provided through use of tags 600-651 and 655. The MARC 21 Authority and Bibliographic formats have changed in the past to accommodate FAST with the addition of field 648 to allow coding of chronological terms, i.e., individual or ranges of dates. Named events are distinctly different in that a name is associated with the event as well as dates. Other subject schemes which do not make these distinctions, such as Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), generally treat named events as topics.

3. OPTIONS

To eliminate the issues with coding named events in tag 611, two possibilities are available: 1) Redefine the X11 series of tags to specifically include named events, or 2) Define a new X47 series of tags to code named events.

3.1. Option 1 – Redefine the X11 Series of Tags to Include Named Events

The X11 series of tags could be redefined to broaden the definition to include all types of named events. Conferences and meetings as well as the list of specific types of headings outlined in MARC 21 Bibliographic Format, Appendix E would still be included.

The designation Meeting or Meeting Name is currently used for names within the X11 series of tags in the Authority and Bibliographic formats. If redefined, these names would also need to be changed.

In the Authority format, tags 111, 411, 511, and 711, could be renamed as follows to reflect the change in definition:

111 Heading--Named Events
411 See From Tracing--Named Events
511 See Also From Tracing--Named Events
711 Established Heading Linking Entry--Named Events

In the Bibliographic format, tags 111, 611, 711, and 811, could be renamed as follows to reflect the change in definition:

111 Main Entry--Named Events
611 Subject Added Entry--Named Events
711 Added Entry--Named Events
811 Series Added Entry--Named Events

Additionally, the use of the first indicator values should be reconsidered. In the context of subject terminology, named events function more like chronological terms, topical terms, and geographic names, which do not make use of first indicator values expressing whether the phrase is in direct order, inverted, or entered under a jurisdiction name. Ideally, the addition of first indicator coded blank for named events should be considered or first indicator values 0, 1, and 2 could be made obsolete altogether.

The advantage of redefining the existing field is that it has already been used to record named events.

3.2. Option 2 – Define a New X47 Series of Tags to Code Named Events

New access point tag X47 could be defined to accommodate named events leaving the current definition and scope of X11 as is. The new access point tag would need to be added to both the Authority and Bibliographic formats potentially modeled on the previous implementation of X48 as follows:

147 Heading--Named Events (Authority format)
447 See From Tracing--Named Events (Authority format)
547 See Also From Tracing--Named Events (Authority format)
647 Subject Added Entry--Named Events (Bibliographic format)
747 Established Heading Linking Entry--Named Events (Authority format)

Such a field, modeled on the existing bibliographic format tag 648, could be defined as follows:

First IndicatorUndefined

# - Undefined

Second IndicatorUndefined  (Authority format tags 147, 447, 547, 747 only)

# - Undefined

Second IndicatorThesaurus  (Bibliographic format tag 647 only)

0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
2 - Medical Subject Headings
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
4 - Source not specified
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
7 - Source specified in subfield $2

Subfield Codes

$a - Named event (NR)
$v - Form subdivision (R)
$x - General subdivision (R)
$y - Chronological subdivision (R)
$z - Geographic subdivision (R)
$0 - Authority record control number or standard number (R)  (Bibliographic format tag 647 only)
$2 - Source of heading or term (NR)  (Bibliographic format tag 647 only)
$3 - Materials specified (NR)  (Bibliographic format tag 647 only)
$6 - Linkage (NR)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

Optionally, $c Location (R) and $d Date (NR) could be implemented to separate the place and date apart from the named event.

The advantage of a new field is that distinctions between conference or meeting names versus other types of named events are maintained. No redefinition of Bibliographic format tags 111, 611, 711, and 811, where other named events would be unlikely to occur, would be needed to make the definition of X11 consistent.

4. EXAMPLES

The following examples provide illustrations for both options.

4.1. Examples for Option 1 – Redefine the X11 Series of Tags to Include Named Events

These examples show use of tag 611 with the first indicator coded blank in addition to use of subfield $c and $d coding. For examples showing use of tag 611 without subfields $c and $d, see the examples in the Background section above.

611 #7 $aBunker Hill, Battle of$c(Boston, Massachusetts : $d1775)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01710024

611 #7 $aSan Fernando Earthquake$c(California :$d1971)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755420

611 #7 $aFamine$c(Ireland :$d1845-1852)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353092

611 #7 $aGlobal Financial Crisis$d(2008-2009)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755654

611 #7 $aHurricane Katrina$d(2005)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755264

611 #7 $aWatts Riot$c(Los Angeles, California :$d1965)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01404356

611 #7 $aCoal Strike$c(Great Britain :$d1984-1985)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst00865219

611 #7 $aEruption of Mount Saint Helens$c(Washington :$d1980)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353018

611 #7 $aWorld War$d(1939-1945)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01180924

4.2. Examples for Option 2 – Define a New X47 Series of Tags to Code Named Events

The following examples show use of tag 647 without additional subfield coding to accommodate places and dates.

647 #7 $aBunker Hill, Battle of (Boston, Massachusetts : 1775)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01710024

647 #7 $aSan Fernando Earthquake (California : 1971)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755420

647 #7 $aFamine (Ireland : 1845-1852)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353092

647 #7 $aGlobal Financial Crisis (2008-2009)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755654

647 #7 $aHurricane Katrina (2005)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755264

647 #7 $aWatts Riot (Los Angeles, California : 1965)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01404356

647 #7 $aCoal Strike (Great Britain : 1984-1985)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst00865219

647 #7 $aEruption of Mount Saint Helens (Washington : 1980)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353018

647 #7 $aWorld War (1939-1945)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01180924

The following examples show use of tag 647 with additional subfield coding to accommodate places and dates.

647 #7 $aBunker Hill, Battle of$c(Boston, Massachusetts :$d1775)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01710024

647 #7 $aSan Fernando Earthquake$c(California :$d1971)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755420

647 #7 $aFamine$c(Ireland :$d1845-1852)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353092

647 #7 $aGlobal Financial Crisis$d(2008-2009)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755654

647 #7 $aHurricane Katrina$d(2005)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755264

647 #7 $aWatts Riot$c(Los Angeles, California :$d1965)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01404356

647 #7 $aCoal Strike$c(Great Britain :$d1984-1985)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst00865219

647 #7 $aEruption of Mount Saint Helens$c(Washington :$d1980)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353018

647 #7 $aWorld War$d(1939-1945)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01180924

5. BIBFRAME DISCUSSION

Events will have higher visibility in BIBFRAME 2.0.  See the spec proposal:
//www.loc.gov/bibframe/docs/pdf/bf2-draftspecevents-10-29-2015.pdf

6. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

6.1. Events can sometimes also be considered time periods (e.g., World War II is an event and is also often used as time period, “the period of World War II,” while something like a hurricane or plane crash is generally only considered to be an event).  Would using specific tags for named events have any negative impact on those who would prefer to index or display combination event/time period headings as chronological terms instead of events?

6.2. Given that some events can also be time periods, would fields 148/648 (Heading—Chronological Term) and the proposed fields be mutually exclusive?

6.3. Which coding option is preferable to record named events?

6.4. If option 1 is preferred, should the first indicator be changed to allow the use of blank for named events?

6.5. Under either option, should subfield coding be used to distinguish places and dates from the named event that precedes those elements?


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