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MARC DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 2016-DP26

DATE: May 27, 2016
REVISED:

NAME: Designating a Norm or Standard used for Romanization in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format

SOURCE: German National Library

SUMMARY: This paper explores options to designate in a bibliographic record which transliteration and romanization norm or standard has been used during the creation of the record, or during the creation of parts of the record.

KEYWORDS: Transliteration (BD); Script (BD); Romanization (BD)

RELATED: DP100; DP109; DP111

STATUS/COMMENTS:
05/27/16 – Made available to the MARC community for discussion.

06/26/16 – Results of MARC Advisory Committee discussion: Concerns were expressed that the examples given in the paper do not reflect all of the complexities involved in the process of transliteration and romanization, so it might be preferable to only designate the norm or standard applied to transliteration and romanization at a field level rather than at a record level. The German National Library and Library of Congress will work together to submit a follow-up Discussion Paper. They will also revisit and re-analyze the current state of romanization schemes to determine if there is a clear path forward for handling vernacular script fields within MARC 21. Consideration will also be given to the inclusion of subfield $0 (Authority record control number or standard number) if a new field or fields are recommended for definition.


Discussion Paper No. 2016-DP26: Designating a Norm or Standard used for Romanization

1. BACKGROUND

In cataloging resources which are written and published in Non-Latin scripts, sometimes information is given in both the original script and in a transliterated version. The MARC 21 format has developed models on how to handle multiscript records, see e.g. Appendix D of the MARC Bibliographic format, "Multiscript Records".

Worldwide, a variety of norms and standards are available to handle romanization. Sometimes for the transliteration of the same Non-Latin original script into its Latin equivalent there are different norms and standards used. For some scripts a fully standardized way of romanization has been reached, some are still not agreed upon, and some others possibly never will.

The intention of this paper is to explore options to express which transliteration norm or standard has been used during the creation of a MARC record as a whole, or during the creation of a specific field inside a MARC record.

In addition, a designation as to whether the transliteration process was performed intellectually, or semi-automatically, or fully automatically, is in scope of this paper.

2. DISCUSSION

The MARC format provides models to transport information in both original script and in its transliterated version. Either a simple model can be used, or the model of pairing fields with their equivalents in an 880 field (Alternate Graphic Representation), linked to each other by subfields $6 (Linkage).

The character set used in a record is coded in the Leader position 09 "Character coding scheme", with the values "#" = Blank for MARC-8 and "a" for UCS/Unicode.

Field 008 (Fixed-Length Data Elements) has at position 38 "Modified record" a "one-character code that indicates whether any data in a bibliographic record is a modification of information that appeared on the item being cataloged or that was intended to be included in the MARC record." Possible values are:

# - Not modified
d - Dashed-on information omitted
o - Completely romanized/printed cards romanized
r - Completely romanized/printed cards in script
s - Shortened
x - Missing characters
| - No attempt to code

Field 066 (Character Sets Present) provides "information that indicates that the records were encoded with characters from sets other than ISO 10646 (or Unicode)", and it "alerts users that special processing may be required".

It seems that none of these format elements of the MARC Bibliographic format cover the intended information.

In the MARC Authority field 008 (Fixed-Length Data Elements) position 07 "Romanization scheme" informs "whether the 1XX heading field contains the romanized form of a name or uniform title and identifies the romanization scheme used" ( //www.loc.gov/marc/authority/ad008.html ). Here the possible values are:

a - International standard
b - National standard
c - National library association standard
d - National library or bibliographic agency standard
e - Local standard
f - Standard of unknown origin
g - Conventional romanization or conventional form of name in language of cataloging agency
n - Not applicable
| - No attempt to code

This byte is the format element that comes closest to the intention of this paper.

The list is a brief one, not naming single transliteration norms or standards, but mostly their level of geographic coverage. As a format element coded by a single byte, it lacks the flexibility that is needed.

Based on the decision whether the record as a whole, or a single field in the record are to be marked, two options are available:

2.1. OPTION 1

A new field is suggested to express for the MARC record as a whole which specific transliteration norm or standard has been used. In addition there should be a way of expressing whether the transliteration has been processed intellectually, or semi-automatically, or fully automatically. The field number can possibly be chosen from the range 06X, near field 066 (Character Sets Present). The new field would look as follows:

067 - Transliteration / Romanization Information (R)

First Indicator: Method of transliteration / romanization

# - No information provided
0 - Fully machine-generated
1 - Partially machine-generated
2 - Intellectually / manually created

Second Indicator:   # - Undefined

Subfield Codes:

$a - Transliteration standard (R)
$n - Note (R)

A typical instance of the discussed field would look as follows:

067 1# $aISO 7098:1991

2.2. OPTION 2

A new field is suggested to express for a single field which specific transliteration norm or standard has been used. The field number here can possibly be chosen from the range 88X, near the field 880 (Alternate Graphic Representation). Linking between the main field and the new field would be provided by subfield $8 (Field link and sequence number). At the moment in subfield $8, the following values for a "Field link type" are defined:

a - Action
c - Constituent item
p - Metadata provenance
r - Reproduction
x - General sequencing

So a new linking type code is needed. The suggested value is:

t - Transliteration

The new field would look as follows:

881 - Transliteration / Romanization Information (R)

First Indicator: Method of transliteration / romanization

# - No information provided
0 - Fully machine-generated
1 - Partially machine-generated
2 - Intellectually / manually created

Second Indicator:   # - Undefined

Subfield Codes:

$a - Transliteration standard (R)
$n - Note (R)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

2.3. OPTION 3

A combination of option 1 (with field 067) and option 2 (with field 881) may be possible. Field 067 would provide record-wide information, and 881 would only be used if a single field differs from the default.

3. EXAMPLES

3.1. Cyrillic script (Russian language), transliterated according to DIN 1460:1982

001 32779562X
003 DE-603
020 ## $a9785444400920$9978-5-4444-0092-0
020 ## $a9785895332948$9978-5-89533-294-8
040 ## $aDE-603$bger$cDE-603$dDE-603$erakwb
041 ## $arus
067 1# $aDIN 1460:1982
084 ## $aKI 5514$2rvk
100 1# $6880-02/Latn$0(DE-603)171456823$aDolgova, Svetlana R.$4aut
245 10 $6880-01/Latn$a"Kraja Moskvy, kraja rodnye ..."$bA. S. Puškin i Moskva$cS. R. Dolgova ; N. I. Michajlova
260 3# $6880-04/Latn$aMoskva$bVeče$c2013
300 ## $a318 S., [16] Bl.$bIll., Kt.
546 ## $aIn kyrill. Schr., russ.
600 17 $0(DE-588)118641816$0(DE-603)086982745$aPuškin, Aleksandr Sergeevič$d06.06.1799-10.02.1837$2gnd
650 7# $0(DE-588)4245672-1$0(DE-603)086293923$aMoskau$gMotiv$2gnd
655 7# $aQuelle$2gnd
700 1# $6880-03/Latn$0(DE-588)103331727$0(DE-603)138744165$aMichajlova, Natalʹja I.$4aut
880 10 $6245-01/Cyrl$a"Края Москвы, края родные..." А.С. Пушкин и Москва$cС. Р. Долгова ; Н. И. Михайлова
880 1# $6100-02/Cyrl$0(DE-603)171456823$aДолгова, Светлана Романовна$4aut
880 1# $6700-03/Cyrl$0(DE-588)103331727$0(DE-603)138744165$aМихайлова, Наталья Ивановна$4aut
880 3# $6260-04/Cyrl$aМосква$bВече

3.2. Chinese script, transliterated according to ISO 7098:1991

001 364323841
003 DE-603
020 ## $a9787313109408$9978-7-313-10940-8
035 ## $a(OCoLC)921915685
040 ## $aDE-603$bger$cDE-603$dDE-603$erakwb
041 ## $achi
067 1# $aISO 7098:1991
245 10 $6880-01/Latn$aYou yuan jing meng$bcong xiao shuo dao hua ju$cShi jia xiu ... zhu bian
250 ## $aDi 1 ban
260 3# $6880-03/Latn$aShang hai$bShang hai jiao tong da xue chu ban she$c2014
300 ## $a2, 3, 320 S.$bIll.
700 1# $6880-02/Latn$0(DE-588)1076837697$0(DE-603)364323795$aShi, Jiaxiu$d1936-$4ctb
880 10 $6245-01/Hans$a游园惊梦$b从小说到话剧$c史嘉秀 ... 主编
880 0# $6700-02/Hans$0(DE-588)1076837697$0(DE-603)364323795$a史嘉秀$d1936-$4ctb
880 3# $6260-03/Hans$a上海$b上海交通大学出版社

3.3. Hebrew script, transliterated according to DIN 31636:2011

001 303122188
003 DE-603
020 ## $a9789653015630$c(hbk.) £39.99$9978-965-301-563-0
020 ## $a965301563X$c(hbk.) £39.99$9965-301-563-X
040 ## $aDE-603$bger$cDE-603$dDE-603$erakwb
041 ## $aeng$aheb
067 1# $aDIN 31636:2011
082 7# $a296.12
245 10 $6880-01/Latn$aTalmud Bavli$b= Koren Talmud Bavli$ccommentary by Adin Even-Israel (Steinsaltz). Ed.-in-chief: Tzvi Hersh Weinreb ; senior content ed.: Shalom Z. Berger ; executive ed. Joshua Schreier
250 ## $aThe Noé Edition, 1st Hebrew/English ed.
260 3# $aJerusalem$bḲoren Publ.
300 ## $c30x23x4 cm
500 ## $aHardback
500 ## $aEnglish section : vocalized text of the Talmud with English translation and commentary by Rabbi Adin Even-Yisrael (Steinsaltz) ; Hebrew section : vocalized text of Talmud and Rashi's commentary and non-vocalized Tosafot commentary. Commentary translated from the Hebrew original published by: Yerushalayim : ha-Makhon ha-Yiśreʾeli le-firsumim Talmudiyim, 1967-[2009] [in 42 vols.]
546 ## $aTeilw. in hebr. Schrift
630 07 $0(DE-588)4328858-3$0(DE-603)086820036$aBabylonischer Talmud$2gnd
655 7# $aKommentar$2gnd
700 1# $6880-02/Latn$0(DE-588)124764053$0(DE-603)120234327$aShṭainzalts, ʿAdin$d1937-$4ctb
700 1# $0(DE-603)333231716$aWeinreb, Tzvi Hersh$4edt$eHrsg.
880 10 $6245-01/Hebr/r$aתלמוד בבלי $bקורן ירושלים $cעם ביאורו של הרב עדין אבן -ישראל שטיינזלץ
880 1# $6700-02/Hebr/r$0(DE-588)124764053$0(DE-603)120234327$aשטיינזלץ , עדין $d1937-$4ctb

3.4. Arabic script, transliterated mainly according to DIN 31635:2011, differently transliterated title according to ISO 233, noted in field 500

001 85269461X
003 DE-101
016 7# $2DE-101$a85269461X
020 ## $a9789776505308$9978-977-6505-30-8
020 ## $a9776505309$9977-6505-30-9
035 ## $a(OCoLC)932335531
035 ## $a(OCoLC)ocn932335531
040 ## $aDE-6$bger$cDE-101$dDE-6
041 ## $aara
044 ## $cXA-DE
067 1# $aDIN 31635:2011
067 1# $aISO 233
084 ## $a6,23$2ssgn
100 1# $0(DE-588)1025761065$0(DE-101)1025761065$aʿAuda, Ǧāsir$4aut
245 10 $aAsʾila ḥaula 'l-marʾa wa-'l-masǧid$bfī ḍauʾ nuṣūṣ aš-šarīʿa wa-maqāṣidihā$cd. Ǧāsir ʿAuda
246 3# $aAsʾilah ḥawla al-marʾah wa-al-masjid$dfī ḍawʾ nuṣūṣ al-sharīʿah wa-maqāṣiduhā
250 ## $aaṭ-Ṭabʿa al-ūlā
264 1# $aal-Qāhira$bDār al-Maqāsid li-ṭ-Ṭibāʿa wa-'n-Našr wa-'t-Tauzīʿ$c2016
300 ## $a132 Seiten$bIllustrationen$c20 cm
500 ## $aTranskriptionsvariante: Asʼilah ḥawla al-marʼah wa-al-masjid : fī ḍawʼ nuṣūṣ al-sharīʻah wa-maqāṣiduhā
546 ## $aIn arabischer Schrift, arabisch
653 ## $a(lcsh)Muslim women--Religious life
653 ## $a(lcsh)Muslim women--Conduct of life
653 ## $a(lcsh)Women in Islam

3.5. As in 3.4., Arabic script, transliterated mainly according to DIN 31635:2011, differently transliterared title according to ISO 233, noted in field 500; example for option 2

001 85269461X
003 DE-101
016 7# $2DE-101$a85269461X
020 ## $a9789776505308$9978-977-6505-30-8
020 ## $a9776505309$9977-6505-30-9
035 ## $a(OCoLC)932335531
035 ## $a(OCoLC)ocn932335531
040 ## $aDE-6$bger$cDE-101$dDE-6
041 ## $aara
044 ## $cXA-DE
067 1# $aDIN 31635:2011
084 ## $a6,23$2ssgn
100 1# $0(DE-588)1025761065$0(DE-101)1025761065$aʿAuda, Ǧāsir$4aut
245 10 $aAsʾila ḥaula 'l-marʾa wa-'l-masǧid$bfī ḍauʾ nuṣūṣ aš-šarīʿa wa-maqāṣidihā$cd. Ǧāsir ʿAuda
246 3# $aAsʾilah ḥawla al-marʾah wa-al-masjid$dfī ḍawʾ nuṣūṣ al-sharīʿah wa-maqāṣiduhā
250 ## $aaṭ-Ṭabʿa al-ūlā
264 1# $aal-Qāhira$bDār al-Maqāsid li-ṭ-Ṭibāʿa wa-'n-Našr wa-'t-Tauzīʿ$c2016
300 ## $a132 Seiten$bIllustrationen$c20 cm
500 ## $81\t$aAsʼilah ḥawla al-marʼah wa-al-masjid : fī ḍawʼ nuṣūṣ al-sharīʻah wa-maqāṣiduhā
546 ## $aIn arabischer Schrift, arabisch
653 ## $a(lcsh)Muslim women--Religious life
653 ## $a(lcsh)Muslim women--Conduct of life
653 ## $a(lcsh)Women in Islam
881 1# $81\t$aISO 233$nTranskriptionsvariante

4. BIBFRAME DISCUSSION

Recording Romanization schemes needs to be investigated.

5. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

5.1. Is the need of expressing which transliteration standard has been used a clearly given one?

5.2. Can the issue be solved by a format element already available in the MARC format?

5.3. Would the record-wide definition of field 067 "Transliteration / Romanization Information", as suggested, be a feasible way (option 1)?

5.4. Or would the field-specific definition of field 881 "Transliteration / Romanization Information", as suggested, be a better way (option 2)?

5.5. Is option 3, the combination of option 1 and option 2, applicable?

5.6. Should the suggested format solution be extended to other parts of the MARC format (e.g. the MARC Authority Format)?

5.7. Are there any potential problems that should be taken into account?


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