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MARC PROPOSAL NO. 2021-15

DATE: May 27, 2021
REVISED:

NAME: Updates to Definitions in 007/13 for Sound Recordings in the MARC21 Bibliographic Format

SOURCE: Network Development and MARC Standards Office (NDMSO), Library of Congress, in consultation with the Music Library Association (MLA)

SUMMARY: This paper proposes an update to the name and definitions of the terms used in MARC 007/13 for Sound Recordings.

KEYWORDS: Field 007/13 (Sound Recording) (BD); Original capture and storage technique (BD): Sound capture and storage technique (BD)

RELATED: 2021-DP05; 2021-DP04; 2021-14

STATUS/COMMENTS:
05/27/21 – Made available to the MARC community for discussion.

06/29/21 – Results of MARC Advisory Committee discussion: Approved, subject to editorial review of the 007/13 code labels and definitions.

10/22/21 – Results of MARC Steering Group review - Agreed with the MAC decision.


Proposal No. 2021-15: Updates to Definitions in 007/13 for Sound Recordings

1. BACKGROUND

Field 007/13 for Sound Recordings is currently defined in the Bibliographic format as follows:

13 - Capture and storage technique
How the sound was originally captured and stored. Re-releases of recordings should be coded for the original capture and storage technique, even though such re-releases may have been enhanced using another technique.

a - Acoustical capture, direct storage
Usually a disc or cylinder recording, captured using an acoustical horn and diaphragm and stored directly on a master surface. Most acoustical recordings date from before 1927/29 when electrical recording equipment became available.

b - Direct storage, not acoustical
Disc recordings captured using electrical equipment and stored directly on a master surface. All recordings made with microphones and other electrical equipment prior to the availability of magnetic recording techniques in the late 1940s used direct storage.
Commercial recordings marked "direct to disc" or some equivalent phrase also use this technique.

d - Digital storage
Sound recordings which were captured electrically and stored using digital techniques.
Such recordings are normally identified as "digitally recorded" or some similar phrase on the label or package. "Digital remaster" or "digital mixing" does not imply original digital storage. Note: Digital storage and digital playback should not be confused. The need for digital playback should be recorded in 007/12 (Special playback characteristics).

e - Analog electrical storage
Sound recordings which were captured using electrical techniques and stored as modulations and pulses on a magnetic surface. Most recordings made from the late 1940s until early 1980s are analog electrical recordings.

u - Unknown
Capture and storage technique are not known.

z - Other
None of the other codes is appropriate.

| - No attempt to code

Correspondence with MLA members regarding 2021-DP04 also led to a reexamination of the definitions of the valid values in 007/13, which are listed above. Amongst MLA members who responded to NDMSO’s query about this data, there was a mix of opinions ranging from "I understand them" to "I don't understand them" to "These have long needed updating."

2. DISCUSSION

This proposal began as 2021-DP05. Based on feedback from MLA members and the MARC Advisory Committee, this proposal presents an updated field name and updated definitions for the values in field 007/13 for Sound Recordings, which has been influenced by the terminology used in Jay Weitz’s Music Coding and Tagging: MARC 21 content designation for scores and sound recordings (2nd ed., 2001).

The discussion paper also proposed creating a new value for a specific type of digital encoding. Based on feedback, additional values are not included. This decision could be revisited in the future.

3. PROPOSED CHANGES

3.1. In field 007/13 (Sound Recordings) of the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format, revise the name and definition of the field to better reflect the information included:

Current name and definition:

13 - Capture and storage technique
How the sound was originally captured and stored. Re-releases of recordings should be coded for the original capture and storage technique, even though such re-releases may have been enhanced using another technique.

Proposed revision:

13 – Original capture and storage technique
How the sound was originally captured and stored. Sound recordings should be coded for the original capture and storage technique, regardless of the physical format of the manifestation being cataloged or whether the sound on the manifestation being cataloged has been enhanced using another technique.

3.2. Revise the definitions for the following codes:

a - Acoustical capture, direct storage

Current definition: Usually a disc or cylinder recording, captured using an acoustical horn and diaphragm and stored directly on a master surface. Most acoustical recordings date from before 1927/29 when electrical recording equipment became available.

Proposed revision: Recorded sound originally captured using an acoustical horn and diaphragm and stored directly on a surface such as a disc or cylinder. Most acoustical recordings date from before 1927/29, when electrical recording equipment became available. Also known as mechanical recording.

b - Direct storage, not acoustical

Current definition: Disc recordings captured using electrical equipment and stored directly on a master surface. All recordings made with microphones and other electrical equipment prior to the availability of magnetic recording techniques in the late 1940s used direct storage. Commercial recordings marked "direct to disc" or some equivalent phrase also use this technique.

Proposed revision: Recorded sound originally captured using microphones and other electrical equipment and stored directly on the surface of a disc. This technique was used prior to the availability of magnetic recordings in the late 1940s (see Analog electrical storage, below). More recent commercial recordings marked "direct to disc" or some equivalent phrase also used this technique. Also known as electromechanical recording.

d - Digital storage

Current definition: Sound recordings which were captured electrically and stored using digital techniques. Such recordings are normally identified as "digitally recorded" or some similar phrase on the label or package. "Digital remaster" or "digital mixing" does not imply original digital storage.
Note: Digital storage and digital playback should not be confused. The need for digital playback should be recorded in 007/12 (Special playback characteristics).

Proposed revision: Recorded sound originally captured electrically and stored using digital techniques, which became available in the 1980s. Such recordings may be identified as "digitally recorded" or by use of a similar phrase on the label or package. However, designations such as "digital remastering" or "digital mixing" are post-capture and storage processes and are not meant to suggest that the original capture or storage techniques were digital.
Note: Digital storage and digital playback should not be confused. The need for digital playback should be recorded in 007/12 (Special playback characteristics).

e - Analog electrical storage

Current definition: Sound recordings which were captured using electrical techniques and stored as modulations and pulses on a magnetic surface. Most recordings made from the late 1940s until early 1980s are analog electrical recordings.

Proposed revision: Recorded sound originally captured using electrical techniques, and stored as modulations and pulses on a magnetic surface, such as tape or wire. Most recordings from the late 1940s to early 1980s are analog electrical recordings.

u – Unknown

Current definition: Capture and storage technique are not known.

Proposed revision: Original capture and storage technique are not known.

4. EXAMPLES

Existing examples in the MARC 21 documentation do not need to be updated.

5. BIBFRAME DISCUSSION

BIBFRAME Instance: bflc:CaptureStorage (subclass of bf:SoundCharacteristic), accomodates a designation of original sound capture and storage as a URI from a list or as a literal. The current MARC-to-BIBFRAME conversion generates sound characteristic triples from MARC 007/13 (Sound recording).

6. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED CHANGES

In field 007/13 (Sound Recordings), of the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format:

6.1. Change the field name to Original capture and storage technique and revise the field definition, as outlined in Section 3.1.

6.2. Revise the definitons for the following codes, as outlined in Section 3.2.:

a - Acoustical capture, direct storage
b - Direct storage, not acoustical
d - Digital storage
e - Analog electrical storage
u – Unknown


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