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On the basis of a worldwide survey, this report identifies 162 countries that have laws criminalizing or otherwise punishing illegal entry.  The chart shows countries that impose criminal sanctions for illegal entry as well as countries that impose only civil or administrative penalties (typically fines and deportation). 

The research identified 124 countries that treat illegal entry as a crime.  Countries included in the survey demonstrate a wide range of punishments for illegal border crossing, including deportation, fines, detention, community service, and imprisonment of varied terms. As a rule, the length of imprisonment, which may vary from several months to fifteen years, depends on the circumstances under which the entry occurred.  Most of the countries provide for stricter punishments if the illegal entrants were armed, used or threatened to use force, used motorized vehicles to cross the border, or inflicted damage to private property in the course of illegal entry. In some jurisdictions illegal entry by a group entails harsher punishment than illegal border crossing by an individual.

The countries that only impose civil or administrative penalties include Angola, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Columbia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Turkey, Venezuela, and Vietnam.  Even in these countries, however, criminal sanctions may apply if aggravating circumstances are present.

Countries often exempt undocumented entrants from penalties when they are seeking asylum or are otherwise entitled to international protection. The “Additional Comments” section of this chart mentions this exemption only when it is expressly referenced in the immigration or illegal entry laws of the countries surveyed.

This report does not address the issue of smuggling people across borders or the facilitation of irregular entry, which appears to be criminalized in every jurisdiction surveyed.

Country

Is Illegal Entry a Crime?

Prescribed Punishment, Including Administrative Penalties

Additional Comments

Albania[1]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 2 years or fine.

Stricter punishment prescribed for assistance in illegal border crossing or sheltering those who cross the border illegally.

Algeria[2]

Yes

Detention not exceeding 30 days in immigrant detention camp followed by deportation.

 

Angola[3]

No

Expulsion.

 

Argentina[4]

No

Deportation.

 

Armenia[5]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 3 years or fine.

Stricter punishment prescribed for illegal border crossing committed by group with prior agreement. Asylum seekers exempt from punishment.

Austria[6]

Yes

Fine or imprisonment for up to 6 weeks.

Classified as “administrative” offense, which under Austrian law is equivalent to misdemeanor. No punishment for refugees or persons recognized as in need of protection. Administrative prosecution process suspended during asylum application process.

Azerbaijan[7]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 2 years or fine.

Stricter punishment prescribed for illegal border crossing committed by group with prior agreement. Asylum seekers exempt from punishment.

Bahrain[8]

Yes

Imprisonment for 90 days, fine, or both.

 

Bangladesh[9]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 5 years and fine.

 

Belarus[10]

No

Fine; increased fine and or imprisonment if aggravating circumstances present.

Illegal reentry committed within 1 year after fine punishable by increased fine or imprisonment of up to 2 years. Imprisonment of up to 7 years for illegal entry with use of motorized vehicles, by group, or by previously deported person. Asylum seekers exempt from punishment if they turned themselves in to authorities immediately after crossing border.

Belgium[11]

Yes

8 days to 3 months of imprisonment, fine, or both for initial illegal entry; 1 month to 1 year imprisonment, fine, or both for repeat offenders or those previously deported less than 10 years prior.

 

Benin[12]

Unclear

Fine.

Unclear whether illegal entry is considered crime or merely administrative offense.  Only penalty is fine to be determined by Ministers of Interior and Finance, so likely administrative.

Bhutan[13]

Yes

Deportation.

Classified as petty misdemeanor.

Bolivia[14]

No

Deportation for 3 years and fine.

 

Bosnia - Herzegovina[15]

No

Deportation.

 

Botswana[16]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 10 years, or both.

 

Brazil[17]

No

Deportation.

 

Brunei Darussalam[18]

Yes

Imprisonment for 3 months to 2 years depending on nature of offense, fine, and removal.

Removal for entry outside of port of entry; imprisonment for up to 1 year, fine, and removal for contravening entry control provision; imprisonment for 3 months to 2 years and fine, plus removal, for unlawful entry.

Bulgaria[19]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 5 years or fine.

 

Cambodia[20]

Yes

Imprisonment for 3 to 6 months and deportation.

 

Cameroon[21]

Yes

3 months to 2 years of imprisonment, fine, or both.

 

Canada[22]

Yes

Fine and imprisonment for 6 months or 2 years, depending on nature of offense. In reality, most violators simply deported or ordered to leave.

Unlawful entry or entry at undesignated point not explicitly criminalized but falls under general prohibition against contravening or failing to comply with statutory obligation.

Cape Verde[23]

No

Expulsion.

 

Cayman Islands[24]

Yes

Fine and imprisonment for 1 or 5 years, depending on offense.

For illegal entry, fine and imprisonment for 5 years; for first-time travel document offenses, fine and imprisonment for 1 year.

Chile[25]

Yes

Imprisonment from 61 days to 5 years and deportation.

 

China[26]

Yes, in serious circumstances

Imprisonment, criminal detention, or public surveillance, and fine, depending on nature of offense; foreigners also subject to deportation.

Criminal penalties for illegal border crossing: imprisonment for up to 1 year, criminal detention for shorter period, or public surveillance, and fine. Imprisonment for 1 to 3 years and fine if terrorism involved.

Public security penalties for illegal border crossing: detention for up to 5 days or fine. Detention for 5–10 days and/or fine for illegal entry under exit & entry law. Foreigners may face deportation for committing any of these offenses.

Per Supreme People’s Court and Supreme People’s Procuratorate Interpretations, “serious circumstances” (prerequisite to criminal sanctions) include: (1) harming national interests overseas; (2) repeating offense more than 3 times or in group of more than 3 people; (3) instigating others to join; (4) collaborating with overseas organizations or persons; (5) repeating offense within 1 year after being given administrative penalties for illegal border crossing.

Colombia[27]

No

Fine and deportation.

 

Comoros[28]

Yes

6 months to one year of imprisonment and fine.

 

Congo, Democratic Republic of the[29]

Yes

Up to 3 months’ imprisonment, fine, or both; 1 to 6 months’ imprisonment, fine, or both for illegal reentry.

 

Cook Islands[30]

Yes

Fine.

 

Cote d’Ivoire[31]

Yes

1 month to 1 year of imprisonment and fine; 6 months to 3 years’ imprisonment for illegal reentry.

 

Croatia[32]

No

30-day detention and fine followed by deportation and temporary reentry ban.

 

Cuba[33]

Yes 

Imprisonment of 1 to 3 years or fine.

Migrants who enter seeking asylum not criminally liable.

Czech Republic[34]

No

 

Illegal border crossing punishable by imprisonment of 1 to 5 years only if committed with use or threat to use violence.

Denmark[35]

Yes

Monetary fine or up to 6 months’ or 3 years’ imprisonment, depending on crime.

Entering/exiting outside of designated border crossings punishable with monetary fines or up to 6 months’ imprisonment; repeat offenders subject to more severe sentence. Persons who illegally enter to seek asylum not punished.

Reentering Denmark in violation of deportation order punishable with monetary fines or up to 3 years’ imprisonment.  Remaining in Denmark without proper documentation punishable with fine or up to 1 year of imprisonment.

Djibouti[36]

First illegal entry, unclear; illegal reentry, yes

Deportation and fine; 3 to 6 months’ imprisonment for illegal reentry.

Unclear whether first offense is crime or merely administrative offense.  Only penalized with fine.

Dominica[37]

Yes

Fine, imprisonment for 1 year, or both.

 

Dominican Republic[38]

No

Deportation.

 

Ecuador[39]

No

Fine and deportation.

 

Egypt[40]

Yes

Imprisonment, fine, or both; deportation.

 

El Salvador[41]

No

Expulsion.

Administrative offense.  Ministry of Justice and Public Safety orders expulsion of aliens; General Directorate of Migration and Aliens controls migration and investigates/punishes violations.

 

Estonia[42]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 1 year or fine; enhanced prison term for aggravating circumstances.

Up to 10 years of imprisonment for using face mask, carrying weapons, or endangering human life or property while entering illegally.

Ethiopia[43]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 3 years, or both.

 

European Union[44]

Determined by member country

Penalties set by individual Schengen Area Member Countries, but must be “effective, proportionate and dissuasive.”

Schengen Area Member Countries must introduce penalties for unauthorized crossings of external borders at places other than designated border crossings. Illegally crossing borders to seek asylum exempted from penalties.

EU Member Countries Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania, and the UK are not part of Schengen Area; non-EU Member Countries Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein are part of Schengen Area.

Finland[45]

Yes

Monetary fines or up to 1 year of imprisonment, depending on crime.

Illegally crossing the border (Riksgränsbrott) or reentering Finland in violation of deportation order punishable with monetary fines or imprisonment of up to 1 year. If illegal entry is “crime in the lesser degree,” only monetary fines prescribed.  Persons who illegally enter Finland to seek asylum or who have been subject to human trafficking not punished for illegal entry.

France[46]

Yes

1 year of imprisonment and/or fine; 3 years’ imprisonment for illegal reentry.

Perpetrator must be caught in act of illegally entering or immediately afterwards for charges to be brought. Otherwise, undocumented immigrants can be prosecuted for unlawful stay: a distinct offense. (Fabienne Jault-Seseke et al., Droit de la nationalité et des étrangers 441-42 (2015).)

Gambia[47]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 1 year, or both.

 

Georgia[48]

Yes

Imprisonment of 3 to 5 years.

Asylum seekers exempt from punishment if they turned themselves in to authorities immediately after crossing border.

Germany[49]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 1 year or fine.

If person presents him/herself without delay to authorities and applies for asylum, no criminal charges filed.

Ghana[50]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence of 3 months to 1 year, or both.

 

Greece[51]

Yes

Fine and imprisonment for at least 3 months, deportation with or without detention.

Persons not dangerous or a flight risk may be asked to self-deport within max. 30 days. Deportation prohibited if person has been recognized as refugee or has applied for asylum.

Grenada[52]

Yes

Fine.

 

Guatemala[53]

No

Fine, 6 months’ imprisonment, or both; deportation.

Illegal entry, entry through unauthorized places, lack of identity and travel documents, or illegal stay all administrative violations.

Guinea[54]

First illegal entry, no; illegal reentry, yes

Deportation; 1 to 5 years’ imprisonment, fine, or both for illegal reentry.

 

Guyana[55]

Yes

6 months’ imprisonment and fine.

 

Haiti[56]

Yes

6 months to 1 year of imprisonment and fine.

 

Honduras[57]

Yes

Fines, imprisonment, and/or deportation, depending on nature of offense.

“Irregular” entry or stay of aliens consists of entry through unauthorized place, noncompliance with rules on entry and stay, and overstaying.

 

Fine for entry through unauthorized place. Imprisonment from 6 months to 3 years followed by expulsion for reentry after prior expulsion. Entry or stay with false documents subject to deportation; criminal penalties apply for falsification.

Hungary[58]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 8 years, deportation, and reentry ban.

 

Iceland[59]

Yes

Monetary fines or up to 6 months’ imprisonment.

Entering, reentering, or residing in Iceland illegally subject to monetary fine or 6 months’ imprisonment.  Penalties waived for persons arriving directly from region where they had reason to fear persecution.

India[60]

Yes

Imprisonment for 2 to 8 years and fine for illegal entry; up to 3 months’ imprisonment, fine, or both for entry without passport or with forged passport/visa.

 

Indonesia[61]

Yes

Fine and/or imprisonment for up to 1 year or 5 years, depending on crime.

Shorter term of imprisonment for knowingly entering without examination by immigration officer at immigration checkpoint; longer term for entering with no legal/valid travel document or visa.

Iran[62]

Yes

Discretionary imprisonment for 1 to 3 years or fine.

Pending bill would amend laws/regulations and exempt from punishment unauthorized border crossers granted or seeking asylum; legal authorities would have max. 3 months to make asylum decision, during which time asylum seekers would be held in special detention centers (https://perma.cc/8J9T-4TCU, in Persian).

Iraq[63]

Yes

Imprisonment not exceeding 3 years, fine, or both; deportation.

 

Ireland[64]

Yes

Fine, imprisonment for up to 12 months, or both.

 

Israel[65]

Yes

5 years’ imprisonment, fine, or both.

15 years to life imprisonment if offender is armed and offense involves harm to property or public peace.  

Italy[66]

No

Fine; 5 to 15 years’ imprisonment and fine for aggravating circumstances.

Penalties for illegal entry of non-EU persons, reentry after expulsion, reentry of previously removed EU citizens, and stay following expiration of residence permit. (Luigi Modaffari, Il Reato di Ingresso e Soggiorno Illegale nel Territorio dello Stato,Altalex (Sept. 18, 2009), https://perma.cc/ADA7-M35Y.) Penalties increased if aggravating circumstances present, as defined in law.

Jamaica[67]

Yes

Fine or imprisonment with or without hard labor for up to 3 years, and/or deportation.

 

Japan[68]

Yes

Imprisonment for not more than 3 years and/or fine, and deportation.

Offenders exempt from penalty if they claim before immigration officer that they are refugees who came directly from concerned territories without delay and other conditions met.

Jordan[69]

Yes

Imprisonment not exceeding 6 months, fine, or both; deportation.

 

Kazakhstan[70]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 1 year or fine and deportation.

 

Kenya[71]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 1 year, or both.

 

Kiribati[72]

Yes

Imprisonment for 6 months and fine.

 

Kosovo[73]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 6 months or fine.

Stricter punishment if perpetrator accompanied by child or another person.

Kuwait [74]

Yes

Imprisonment not exceeding 30 days, fine, or both; deportation.

 

Kyrgyzstan[75]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 2½ years or correctional labor of up to 3 years.

Asylum seekers exempt from punishment.

Laos[76]

Yes

Fine.

 

Latvia[77]

Yes

Short-term detention, community service or fine.

Imprisonment of up to 1 year can be imposed on those previously banned from reentry; stricter punishment if illegal entry committed by group of people or by using vehicle.

Lebanon[78]

Yes

Fine and deportation.

 

Lesotho[79]

Yes

Fine; if fine not paid, custodial sentence not exceeding 2 months.

 

Liberia[80]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 1 year, or both.

 

Libya[81]

Yes

Imprisonment, fine, or both; deportation.

 

Liechtenstein[82]

No

Fine.

Administrative offense. Immigration and Passport Office responsible for illegal entry offenses unless individual is repeat offender, in which case Court of First Instance (Landgericht) is responsible authority.

Lithuania[83]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 2 years, detention, or fine.

Punishment does not apply to those who cross border in search of asylum.

Luxembourg[84]

Yes

8 days to 1 year of imprisonment, fine, or both; 6 months to 1 year of imprisonment, fine, or both for illegal reentry.

1 month to 2 years’ imprisonment, fine, or both if person entered illegally by lying or presenting forged papers.

 

Macau[85]

First illegal entry, no; illegal reentry, yes.

Deported and banned from reentry within specified time; up to 1 year of imprisonment for reentry in violation of ban.

 

Madagascar[86]

Yes

6 months to 1 year of imprisonment, fine, or both.

 

Malaysia[87]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 5 years, fine, or both, plus liable “to whipping of not more than 6 strokes” and removal.

Fine and/or imprisonment applies to entry without valid entry permit/pass, or entry other than at authorized landing place, airport, or point of entry. Whipping only applicable to entry without valid permit/pass.

Maldives[88]

No

Fine and discretionary deportation.

 

Mali[89]

Yes

3 months to 3 years of imprisonment, fine, or both.

 

Marshall Islands[90]

Yes

Imprisonment up to 5 years, fine, or deportation.

 

Mexico[91]

No

Deportation.

 

Micronesia, Federated States of[92]

Yes 

Imprisonment up to 2 years, fine, or deportation.

 

Moldova[93]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 2 years, community service, or fine.

 

Montenegro[94]

No

20-day detention or fine.

 

Morocco[95]

Yes

Detention in immigration detention center until deportation.

 

Mozambique[96]

No

Expulsion.

 

Myanmar[97]

Yes

Imprisonment for 6 months to 5 years or fine.

 

Namibia[98]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 5 years, or both.

 

Nauru[99]

Yes

Fine if no valid visa.

 

Nepal[100]

No

Fine.

 

Netherlands[101]

Illegal entry, no; failure to present travel document, yes.

Imprisonment up to 6 months or fine.

While law does not penalize undocumented entry by itself, failure to provide travel document when requested by border guard subject to criminal penalty.

Nicaragua[102]

No

Fines and detention.

Administrative offense. “Irregular” entry or stay consists of entry through unauthorized place or other than place of official immigration control, entry using falsified or fraudulently obtained passports, stay following expiration of legal residence, or attempting to exit through unauthorized place. Fines apply to aliens not in possession of corresponding identity documents.

Nigeria[103]

Generally, no; entry after denial of entry, yes. 

Fine, custodial sentence of 10 years, or both.

 

Niue[104]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 2 years and fine.

Penalties apply for failing to report immediately to immigration officer at designated immigration place and failing to apply for permit.

Northern Macedonia[105]

No

 

Imprisonment of up to 1 year imposed on those who illegally enter while armed or by using violence.

Norway[106]

Yes

Monetary fines, or up to 6 months’ or 2 years’ imprisonment, depending on crime.

Failure to enter at designated border crossing from non-Schengen country or residing in country without proper documentation subject to monetary fine or 6 months’ imprisonment. Reentering in violation of expulsion order punishable with monetary fine or imprisonment for up to 2 years. Persons seeking asylum exempt from penalties if asylum sought in timely manner.

Oman[107]

Yes

Imprisonment for 3 months to 3 years, fine, or both; deportation.

 

Pakistan[108]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 10 years and fine.

 

Palau[109]

Yes

Imprisonment up to 2 years, fine, or deportation.

 

Papua New Guinea[110]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 6 months or fine.

 

Paraguay[111]

Illegal entry generally, no; if false documentation used, yes.

Imprisonment of 3 months to 2 years.

 

Peru[112]

No

Deportation.

 

Philippines[113]

Yes

Deportation, imprisonment, and fine.

 

Poland[114]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 2 years or fine.

Stricter penalties for illegal entry committed in groups or by use of violence.

Portugal[115]

No

Expulsion.

 

Qatar[116]

Yes

Imprisonment not exceeding 3 years, fine, or both; deportation.

 

 

Romania[117]

Yes

Imprisonment of 6 months to 3 years or fines.

Imprisonment of up to 5 years imposed on previously deported illegal entrants. Juveniles and victims of human trafficking exempt from prosecution.

Russian Federation[118]

Yes

Imprisonment or correctional labor of up to 2 years or fine.

Stricter punishment for those whose presence Russia forbids or for groups. Asylum seekers exempt from punishment.

Rwanda[119]

Yes

Imprisonment for 30 days to 6 months, fine, or both; 1 to 3 years’ imprisonment, fine, or both for illegal reentry.

 

Saint Kitts and Nevis[120]

No

Fine, imprisonment for up to 12 months, or both, and/or deportation.

Act determines “no person may enter . . . except at a formal port of entry.” Illegal crossing by not cooperating with or willfully misleading immigration officer is punishable.

Saint Lucia[121]

Yes

Fine, 6 months’ imprisonment, or both, and/or deportation.

 

Samoa[122]

Yes

Fine, imprisonment, or both, depending on crime.

Fine only for entry other than in accordance with law or without entry permit; imprisonment for 12 months, fine, or both, for general offense of acting or attempting to act in contravention of, or failing to comply with, any provisions in law. Offenses dealt with summarily following person making an admission and submitting a request in writing penalized by lower fine.

São Tomé e Príncipe[123]

No

Expulsion.

 

Saudi Arabia[124]

Yes

Detention until deportation.

 

Senegal[125]

Yes

1 to 3 months’ imprisonment, fine, or both; 1 to 5 years’ imprisonment and fine for illegal reentry.

 

Serbia[126]

No

Detention of up to 1 month or fine; enhanced penalty if aggravating circumstances.

Illegal crossing with weapons or use of force criminalized and punished by up to 1 year of imprisonment.

Seychelles[127]

Yes

Fine and 3-year prison term.

 

Singapore[128]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 6 months and caning with not less than 3 strokes or fine.

 

Slovakia[129]

No

Fine.

Varied administrative fines, processed by police.

Slovenia[130]

No

Fine.

 

Solomon Islands[131]

No

Daily fines after 21st day of unlawful presence.

Fine applies for presence as unlawful noncitizen, including noncitizen who enters without valid visa. No fine if person departs before end of 21st day of unlawful presence.

South Africa[132]

Yes

Fine or custodial sentence not exceeding 2 years.

 

South Korea[133]

Yes

Imprisonment for not more than 5 years or fine, and deportation.

Offenders exempt from penalty if they claim they are refugees who came directly from concerned territories without delay before immigration officer and other conditions met.

Spain[134]

No

Fine.

 

Sri Lanka[135]

Yes

Imprisonment for 1 to 5 years and fine.

 

Sudan[136]

Yes

Detention or house arrest until deportation.

 

Swaziland[137]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 6 months, or both.

 

Sweden[138]

Yes

Monetary fines, or up to 6 months or 1 year of imprisonment, depending on crime.

Illegal entry from outside Schengen Area punishable with monetary fines or imprisonment of up to 1 year. Being present in Sweden without proper documentation subject to monetary fine. Reentering Sweden in violation of deportation order punishable with imprisonment of up to 1 year, or monetary fines if act is considered “crime in the lesser degree” (ringa brott). Penalties do not apply to persons who timely seek asylum.

Switzerland[139]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 1 year or fine.

If immediately deported, prosecution, committal to court, or imposition of penalties may be dispensed with for foreign nationals who unlawfully entered or left country.

Taiwan[140]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 3 years, detention, and/or fine. Any alien sentenced to imprisonment may be deported.

 

Tajikistan[141]

Yes

Imprisonment from 2 to 5 years or fine.

Asylum seekers exempt from punishment.

Tanzania[142]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence, or both.  Recidivism subject to higher fine, longer custodial sentence, or both. 

 

Thailand[143]

Yes

Imprisonment not exceeding 2 years, fine, and deportation.

 

Togo[144]

First illegal entry, no;

illegal reentry, yes

6 months’ to 2 years’ imprisonment for illegal reentry.

 

Tonga[145]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 2 years, fine, or both, plus removal.  Same penalties but up to 3 years’ imprisonment if previously removed.

 

Trinidad and Tobago[146]

Yes

Fine and imprisonment for 3 years for first offense; double fine and 5 years’ imprisonment for subsequent offenses.

 

Tunisia[147]

Yes

Imprisonment and fine; deportation.

 

Turkey[148]

No

Administrative fine, deportation with or without detention. 

Persons not dangerous or a flight risk may be asked to self-deport within max 30 days. Deportation prohibited if person has been recognized as person under international protection or has applied for protection.

Turkmenistan[149]

Yes

Correctional labor of up to 2 years or imprisonment of up to 2 years.

Asylum seekers exempt from punishment.

Turks and Caicos Islands[150]

Yes

Fine, imprisonment for 2 years, or both.

 

Tuvalu[151]

Yes

Imprisonment for 6 months and fine.

 

Uganda[152]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 3 years, or both.

 

Ukraine[153]

Yes

Imprisonment of up to 3 years.

Criminally prosecuted only if illegal entry committed to damage state’s interests or by individuals banned by courts from entering.

United Arab Emirates[154]

Yes

Imprisonment and deportation.

 

United Kingdom[155]

Yes

Fine, 6 months’ imprisonment, or both, and deportation.

“Illegal entry” includes entry in breach of deportation order or without leave.  May be dealt with as administrative action only, resulting in deportation or removal.

Uruguay[156]

No

Deportation.

 

Uzbekistan[157]

Yes

Imprisonment from 3 to 5 years or fine.

 

Vanuatu[158]

Yes

Imprisonment for up to 2 years, fine, or both.

Penalties for failing to comply with requirement to enter at appointed port or airport, or entering/attempting to enter without valid visa. Person served with penalty notice who pays amount specified on the notice within 30 days not liable to further proceedings.

Venezuela[159]

No

Deportation.

 

Vietnam[160]

No

Fine and deportation.

Administrative offense.

Zambia[161]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 2 years, or both.

 

Zimbabwe[162]

Yes

Fine, custodial sentence not exceeding 1 year, or both.

 

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Prepared by Global Legal Research Directorate, Law Library of Congress
August 2019


[1] Penal Code of Albania, art. 297, https://perma.cc/GR2D-HPVW.

[2] Law No. 11-08 of 2008, arts. 4 (prohibition of illegal entry), 36 (deportation) & 37 (detention), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 36, 2 July 2008.

[3] Lei No. 13/19, de 23 de Maio, arts. 34(3)(f), 99, https://www.legis-palop.org/results.jsp?load=71184&l&a=1565703572750 (searchable database available by subscription only).

[4] Ley 25871 de Migraciones, Boletin Oficial Jan. 21, 2004, art. 37, https://perma.cc/7UH7-B82V.

[5] Criminal Code of Republic of Armenia 2003, art. 329, https://perma.cc/6HGA-YDME.

[6] Grenzkontrollgesetz [GrekoG], as amended, art. 16 para. 1, nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, https://perma.cc/K3GV-GBAV; Fremdenpolizeigesetz 2005 [FPG], as amended, art. 120, para. 1 (penalties) & 7, 11 (suspension of prosecution), https://perma.cc/PGN7-DYWA.

[7] Criminal Code 1999, art. 318, https://perma.cc/BF6U-UPJV.

[8] Law on the Immigration and Residency of Foreigners, arts. 1 (prohibition of illegal entry) & 29 (imprisonment and fine), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 625, 1 July 1965.

[9] Foreigners Act, 1946, §§ 13 (contravention of Act) & 14 (penalties), https://perma.cc/ZQE9-S8M3; Foreigners Order, 1951.

[10] Criminal Code of Republic of Belarus 1999 art. 37, https://perma.cc/W7Y8-7UQZ.

[11] Loi du 15 décembre 1980 sur l’accès au territoire, le séjour, l’établissement et l’éloignement des étrangers, as amended, arts. 75 & 76, https://perma.cc/SRL8-4PMK.

[12] Loi No. 86-012 du 26 février 1986 portant régime des étrangers en République populaire du Bénin, art. 34, Feb. 26, 1986, https://perma.cc/RE2F-5M88.

[13] Immigration Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan §§ 58 (entry at designated place), 126 (entry by false/misleading representation or without valid documents), https://perma.cc/D7PZ-22JV; Penal Code of Bhutan §§ 440 (similar offense of “illegal immigration”), 441 (punishment), https://perma.cc/GPK7-YKKC.

[14] Decreto Supremo 1923 Gaceta Oficial, Mar. 13, 2014, art. 37.II.b, https://perma.cc/LL3S-CGUA.

[15] Law 8/12 of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina on Movement and Stay of Aliens and Asylum, art. 88, https://perma.cc/W3LE-RRYM. 

[16] Immigration Act, § 4, 4 Laws of Botswana, Cap. 25:02 (rev. ed. 2016), https://perma.cc/6CP6-GUV5.

[17] Decreto No. 9.199, de 20 de Novembro de 2017, art. 307(I), https://perma.cc/UER9-SFUJ.

[18] Immigration Act, ch. 17, No. 23 of 1956, §§ 5(1)&(3) (Entry into Brunei), 6(1) & (3) (control of entry), 32(1) (removal), 55(1)(a) (unlawful entry), 56 (proceedings not to affect removal), https://perma.cc/VYC5-53HL.

[19] Criminal Code of Bulgaria, 1968, art. 279, https://perma.cc/EYD6-YYNP.

[20] Law on Immigration of 1994, arts. 29 & 35, https://perma.cc/E2TW-BBQW.

[21] Loi No. 1997/012 du 10 janvier 1997 fixant les conditions d’entrée, de séjour et de sortie des étrangers au Cameroun, art. 40, Jan. 10, 1997, https://perma.cc/FK5Z-D3HL.

[22] Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), S.C. 2001, c. 27, §§ 18(1) (statutory requirement to appear for examination ), 20(1) (statutory obligation to establish permanent/temporary residence), 124(1)(a) (general offense), https://perma.cc/KD62-CA8G; Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations, SOR/2002-227, § 27(1)-(2), https://perma.cc/TFY8-QFWH.

[23] Lei 66/VIII/2014, art. 77(1)(a), 90, 101, https://www.legis-palop.org/results.jsp?l&vc&load=52082 (searchable database available by subscription only).

[24] Immigration Law (2015 Revision), §§ 64(1) & (4) (travel documents), 74(1) (removal), 78(1) (illegal entry & presence), 110 (punishment for offenses for which no penalty is provided specifically by a section), https://perma.cc/LVV7-WB36.

[25] Decreto-ley 1094 Establece Normas sobre extranjeros en Chile, Diario Oficial Jul. 14, 1975, revised Apr. 4, 2011, arts. 68-69, https://perma.cc/72SM-YDR3.

[26] Criminal Law (promulgated July 1, 1979, revised Mar. 14, 1997, effective Oct. 1, 1997, as amended Feb. 25, 2011) arts. 35 & 322, in Series of Statute of the People’s Republic of China in English: Criminal Law and Procedure Law 16, 158 (2015); Ninth Amendment to the Criminal Law (adopted by the National People’s Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) on Aug. 29, 2015, effective Nov. 1, 2015) art. 40 https://perma.cc/JZL6-XV2K (in Chinese).

Law on Penalties for Administration of Public Security (adopted by the NPCSC on Aug. 28, 2005, amended Oct. 26, 2012) arts. 10 & 62, https://perma.cc/79P6-JPSK (in Chinese), https://perma.cc/8JVC-L4XD (English translation of 2005 version).

Exit and Entry Administration Law (adopted by the NPC Standing Committee on June 30, 2012, effective July 1, 2013) arts. 71 & 81, https://perma.cc/U9GP-65Q8 (in Chinese), https://perma.cc/5Q3C-EU8K (English translation).

Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Interpretations on Certain Issues Concerning the Application of Law in Handling Criminal Cases Against the Control of National Border (Frontier) (Dec. 12, 2012, effective Dec. 20, 2012), https://perma.cc/7SRJ-77UK (in Chinese).

[27] Decreto 1067/2015 Unico Reglamentario del Sector Administrativo de relaciones Exteriores, Diario Oficial May 24, 2015, arts. 2.2.1.13.1 para. 11 and 2.2.1.13.1.2 para. 1, https://perma.cc/X4G7-W4QZ.

[28] Loi n°88-025 du 29 décembre 1988 portant modification de la loi n°82-026 relative aux conditions d’entrée et de séjour des étrangers aux Comores, art. 25, Dec. 29, 1988, https://perma.cc/S6HT-7PPF.

[29] Ordonnance-Loi 83-033 du 12 septembre 1983 relative à la police des étrangers, arts. 21, 22, Sept. 12, 1983, https://perma.cc/7BRJ-UDZ7.

[30] Entry, Residence and Departure Act 1971-72, s 41, https://perma.cc/L3WP-NYD2.

[31] Loi n° 90-437 du 29 mai 1990 relative à l’entrée et au séjour des étrangers en Côte d’Ivoire, arts. 13, 19, May 29, 1990, https://perma.cc/ATK6-FXVL.

[32] State Border Protection Act 2013, art. 42, https://perma.cc/2FJ6-XKFH;Aliens Act 2017, art. 107, https://perma.cc/NZ57-84XA (in Croatian).

[33] Código Penal de la Republica de Cuba, art. 215, Apr. 30, 1988 (2017 ed.).

[34] Penal Code of Czech Republic 2009, § 339, https://perma.cc/S8DW-KURR (in Czech).

[35] §§ 59-59 b Bekendtgørelse af udlændingeloven (LBK nr 239 af 10/03/2019), https://perma.cc/YK2Z-YGWM.

[36] Loi n° 40/AN/19/8ème L du 21 janvier 2019 relative aux conditions d'entrée et de séjour des étrangers en République de Djibouti, arts. 33, 36, 40, Jan. 21, 2019, https://perma.cc/QAH8-3HH9.

[37] Immigration and Passport Act (IPA), ch. 18:01, https://perma.cc/SJC2-RUA5, as amended by Immigration and Passport(Amendment) Act, 2003, Act 19 of 2003, § 7 (adding IPA § 27A, offense of illegal entry), https://perma.cc/8QNL-PP45.

[38] Ley General de Migración arts. 68, 69, 121, Aug. 15, 2004, https://perma.cc/VU8Z-ZXSM.

[39] Ley de Movilidad Humana, Registro Oficial Feb. 6, 2017, arts. 2 para. 3, 143.1. and 170, https://perma.cc/5PBQ-SBG9.

[40] Law No. 89 of 1960, arts. 4 (prohibition of illegal entry), 38 (deportation) & 41 (imprisonment and fine), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 71, 24 Mar. 1960.

[41] Ley Especial de Migración y Extranjería, arts. 6(3), 13(14) & (48), 40(1), 49(3), https://perma.cc/9UL3-CF74.

[42] Penal Code of Estonia 2014, § 237(4), 258, https://perma.cc/P3QE-9SNZ.

[43] Immigration Proclamation No. 354 of 2003, art. 20, Federal Negarit Gazeta (July 3, 2003), https://perma.cc/574F-TRC2

[44] Schengen Borders Code art. 5(3), 2016 O.J. (L 77) 1, https://perma.cc/WB8T-484U.

[45] 17 kap. 7 – 7b §§ Strafflag (FFS 1889/39), https://perma.cc/4UY9-HXAZ.

[46] Code de l’entrée et du séjour des étrangers et du droit d’asile, arts. L621-2, L624-1-1, L624-3, https://perma.cc/XVU4-5SVP.

[47] Immigration Act of 1965, §§ 6 & 32, 4 Laws of The Gambia, Cap. 16:02 (rev. ed. 2009), https://perma.cc/KJG8-S6TF.

[48] Criminal Code of Georgia 1999, art. 344, https://perma.cc/KGV7-9Q9S.

[49] Aufenthaltsgesetz [AufenthG], as amended, § 95, para. 1, no. 3(penalties) & § 95, para. 5 (asylum exemption), http://perma.cc/866U-3XR6.

[50] Immigration Act No. 573 of 2000, §§ 3 & 11 (Feb. 2, 2000), https://perma.cc/VVU6-4PJC.

[51] Law 3386/2005, arts. 83(1) & 76(1)(b), as amended, https://perma.cc/X3FJ-VZTD; Law 3907 [2011] art. 22, https://perma.cc/Z7E3-UXRY.

[52] Immigration Act, ch. 145, §§ 5 (passports and visas), 36(1)(a) (entry through falsified documents) & (d) contravenes any provision of this Act if no specific penalty has been provided), http://laws.gov.gd/ (laws browsable).

[53] Código de Migración arts. 50 & 193, Decreto N° 44-2016, https://perma.cc/33AF-9LM4.

[54] Loi n° L/9194/019/CTRN du 13 juin 1994 portant sur les conditions d’entrée et de séjour des étrangers en République de Guinée, arts. 71, 75, June 13, 1994, https://perma.cc/ATX6-LRAG.

[55] Aliens (Immigration and Registration) Act, § 9, Laws of Guyana Cap. 14:03, https://perma.cc/HN4B-LUCN.

[56] Loi organique du 26 décembre 1978 du service de l’immigration et de l’émigration, art. 2, December 26, 1978, in Ertha Pascal-Trouillot, Code de lois usuelles, vol. 2, 366 (1989).

[57] Decreto N° 208-2003, Ley de Migración y Extranjería, arts. 82, 88(1), 89(5) & 101(5), La Gaceta, Mar. 3, 2004, https://perma.cc/AWH6-Y362; Decreto N° 34 of 1970, Ley de Poblacion y Política Migratoria, art. 92, La Gaceta, Dec. 10, 1970, https://perma.cc/C6SH-ZXWP; Código Penal de Honduras, art. 347, Decreto N° 144-83, Sept. 26, 1983, https://perma.cc/2VRC-MCRB.

[58] Act CXL of Sept. 4, 2015, on Amending Certain Acts Relating to Migration, Magyar Kozlyony 124/2015 (official gazette), https://perma.cc/N3YF-8Q73 (in Hungarian).

[59] 18, 32 and 116 gr. Lög um útlendinga (2016 nr. 80 16. Júní), https://perma.cc/R4A7-M7MQ (original in Icelandic), https://perma.cc/6XAX-J862 (unofficial English translation).

[60] Foreigners Act, No. 31 of 1946, § 14A(a) (entry in restricted areas, etc.), http://www.mha.nic.in/pdfs/The Foreigners Act, 1946.pdf; Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920, §§ 3(2)(a) (entry without passport), 5 (power of removal), https://perma.cc/9992-JR9F; Passport (Entry into India) Rules, 1950, Rules 3 (no entry without valid passport) & 6 (punishment), https://perma.cc/2FS8-SXJ4.

[61] Law Number 6 of 2011 on Immigration, arts. 113 & 119(1), https://perma.cc/6VPR-MQ8W.

[62] Law on the Punishment of Persons Transporting Others Across the Country’s Borders Without Authorization and the Amendment of Some Articles of the Law on Passports and the Law on Foreign Nationals Entering and Residing in Iran, Oct. 6, 1988, art. 6 (amending art. 15 of the Law on Foreign Nationals Entering and Residing in Iran, May 10, 1931), https://perma.cc/N9UH-7DKZ (in Persian).

[63] Law No. 76 of 2017, arts. 3 (prohibition of illegal entry), 24 (deportation) & 40 (imprisonment and fine), Al-Waqa’a Al-Iraqiah, vol. 4466, 23 Oct. 2017.

[64] Immigration Act, 2004, No. 1 of 2004, §§ 5(1)-(2) (presence of non-nationals), 13(1) (offenses), https://perma.cc/UKS8-8ANM.

[65] Prevention of Infiltration Law (Offenses and Adjudication), 5714-1954, §§ 2–5 & 30(a), Sefer HaHukim [SH] (official gazette) 5714 No. 161 p. 160, as amended (in Hebrew).

[66] Decreto Legislativo 25 luglio 1998, n. 286 Testo Unico delle Disposizioni concernenti la Disciplina dell’Immigrazione e Norme sulla Condizione dello Straniero, arts. 10-bis(1), 12(3), G.U. Aug. 18, 1998, https://perma.cc/S6K9-MKAG.

[67] Aliens Act, 1946, as amended, §§ 15 & 20, Laws of Jamaica, Cap. 9, https://perma.cc/6LAC-FMVG.

[68] Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, Cabinet Order No. 319 of October 4, 1951, as amended by Act No. 102 of 2018, arts. 70 (penalties) & 70-2 (exemptions), para. 1, items 1–3 & art. 24, https://perma.cc/8Z5N-JW7F (as amended by Act No. 113 of 2014).

[69] Law No. 24 of 1973, arts. 4 (prohibition of illegal entry) & 31 (deportation, imprisonment, and fine), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 1112, 16 June 1973.

[70] Criminal Code of Kazakhstan 2014, art. 392, https://perma.cc/8UY9-YQTC.

[71] Kenya Citizenship and Immigration Regulations, 2012, §§ 15 & 57, 12 Laws of Kenya (rev. ed. 2016).

[72] Immigration Ordinance (Cap. 41) s 23(1)(i), https://perma.cc/5ZTN-NZ2X.

[73] Criminal Code of Kosovo 2012, art. 146, https://perma.cc/9BRU-SRLN.

[74] Royal Decree No. 17 of 1959, arts. 4 (prohibition of illegal entry), 16 (deportation), 24 (imprisonment and a fine) Al-Kuwait Al-Youm [Official Gazette], vol. 253, 14 Dec. 1959.

[75] Criminal Code 2017, art. 358, https://perma.cc/QZF4-T2GW (in Kyrgyz).

[76] Law on Entry, Exit and the Management of Foreigners, No. 59/NA, Dec. 26, 2014, art. 72, https://perma.cc/KXD7-G6JF.

[77] Criminal Law of Latvia 2000, art. 284, https://perma.cc/9UUX-HA8Y.

[78] Decree No. 39 of 1941, arts. 1 (prohibition of illegal entry), 2 (deportation and a fine), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 3872, 26 Mar. 1941.

[79] Aliens Control Act of 1966, §§ 11 & 33 (Mar. 1, 1968), https://perma.cc/WG6U-XP68

[80] Aliens and Nationality Law, § 5.90 (May 15, 1973), https://perma.cc/HKK4-VNPG

[81] Law No. 6 of 1987, arts. 1 (prohibition of illegal entry), 17 (deportation), 19 (imprisonment and a fine), website of the Ministry of Justice, https://perma.cc/985M-7LBW.

[82] Ausländergesetz [AuG], art 87(a), https://perma.cc/3RNK-WMLB.

[83] Criminal Code of Lithuania, 2000, art. 291, https://perma.cc/D9U8-HJ7Y.

[84] Loi modifiée du 29 août 2008 sur la libre circulation des personnes et l’immigration, arts. 140, 141, 142, Aug. 29, 2008, https://perma.cc/ND2Q-DBEL.

[85] Law for Illegal Immigration and Expulsion, Law No. 6/2004 (Aug. 2, 2004), arts. 8, 12, & 21 https://perma.cc/7S9Q-BSE8 (in Chinese).

[86] Loi n° 62-006 du 6 juin 1962 fixant l’organisation et le contrôle de l’immigration (as amended), art. 18, https://perma.cc/Y3DT-6W9D.

[87] Immigration Act 1959/63 (Act 155), ss 5, 6, 32 & 57, https://perma.cc/QQJ5-4CTW.

[88] Maldives Immigration Act §§ 3 (entry/departure from authorized port), 7 (entry/departure of foreign nationals), 33(a) & (c) (offenses and penalties), https://perma.cc/WGQ3-33C8.

[89] Loi 04-058 AN RM du 25 novembre 2004 relative aux conditions d’entrée, de séjour et d’établissement d’étrangers au Mali, art. 23, Nov. 25, 2004, https://perma.cc/D7CL-BWAX.

[90] 43 MIRC §§ 156, 173 (2014), https://perma.cc/8AZ9-K7C4.

[91] Ley de Migración arts. 2, 143, 144, Diario Oficial de la Federación [D.O.F.], May 25, 2011, as amended through 2019, https://perma.cc/9US5-DNNA.

[92] 50 FSM Code § 114 (2014), https://perma.cc/2TQY-QPB9.

[93] Criminal Act of Moldova No. 985, 2002, art. 362, https://perma.cc/E3YA-3WPB (in Russian).

[94] Law on State Border Control, Sluzbeni List RCG (official gazette) 72/05, art. 52, https://perma.cc/3RNB-4W8G, (in Montenegrin), English translation at https://perma.cc/4MZ5-N58W.

[95] Royal Decree No. 1.03.196 promulgating Law No. 02.03 of 2003, arts. 3 (prohibition of illegal entry), 21 (deportation) & 34 (detention), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 5160, 11 Nov. 2003.

[96] Lei No. 5/93, de 28 de Dezembro, art. 29(a), https://www.legis-palop.org/results.jsp?load=17640&l&a=1565785717713 (searchable database available by subscription only).

[97] Burma Immigration Emergency Provisions Act, 1947, § 13(2), https://perma.cc/73ND-9PTU.

[98] Immigration Control Act of 1993, §§ 6 & 10 (July 29, 1994), https://perma.cc/FF86-MPPZ.

[99] Immigration Act 2014, s 10(1), https://perma.cc/6QXP-CSL5

[100] Nepal Immigration Act, 2049, §§ 3(1) (no entry without passport and visa), 10(4) (punishment), https://perma.cc/7MP7-4RPA (original Nepalese), https://perma.cc/9APW-ENSL (English translation).

[101] Vreemdelingenwet 2000, as amended, art. 108 para. 2, https://perma.cc/M27F-QK3L.

[102] Ley General de Migración y Extranjería, Ley N° 761 of March 31, 2011, arts. 117, 122, 166, Las Gacetas, N° 125-126, Aug. 6-7, 2011, https://perma.cc/W6AL-N9MW.

[103] Immigration Act No. 8 of 2015, § 56, Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette (June 8, 2015), https://perma.cc/BX4S-KNCR; Immigration Regulations, 2017, Government Notice No. 28, § 44, Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette (Mar. 1, 2017), https://perma.cc/ACK4-UZBG.

[104] Immigration Act 2011, s 32, https://perma.cc/69CB-T6BW.

[105] Criminal Code of North Macedonia 2009, art. 402, https://perma.cc/D8TB-J438.

[106] §§ 14, 55, 56, and 108 Lov om utlendingers adgang til riket og deres opphold her (utlendingsloven) (LOV-2008-05-35), https://perma.cc/BB7M-9HQS (original in Norwegian), https://perma.cc/Y6GD-XWY6 (unofficial English translation). 

[107] Royal Decree No. 95/16, arts. 6 (prohibition of illegal entry), 29 (deportation), 41 (imprisonment and fine), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 550, 1 May 1995.

[108] Foreigners Act, 1946, §§ 13 (contravention of Act), 14(2) (penalties for illegal entry), 14B (deportation pending trial or during sentence), https://perma.cc/8K4M-YCGD; Foreigners Order, 1951, § 3(1) (entry only at port of entry), https://perma.cc/9VRN-6CKP

[109] 13 PNCA § 1011 (2014), https://perma.cc/2NDN-FP6E.

[110] Migration Act 1978 (Cap. 16), s 16(1)(a), https://perma.cc/8Y9N-JF5A

[111] Ley 978/96 de Migraciones, Gaceta Oficial Nov. 8, 1996, art. 108, https://perma.cc/V5UF-XPLN

[112] Decreto Legislativo de Migraciones No. 1350, El Peruano Jan. 7, 2017, arts. 57.1. and 58, https://perma.cc/EPA9-6JCT.

[113] Philippine Immigration Act, § 45(d), (h), https://perma.cc/VHL4-TUDG.

[114] Penal Code of Poland, 1997, art. 264, https://perma.cc/6VWZ-6MRS.

[115] Lei No. 23/2007, de 04 de Julho, arts. 134(1)(a), 181, https://perma.cc/5L53-R84W.

[116] Law No. 4 of 2009, arts. 3 (prohibition of illegal entry), 37 (deportation) & 51 (imprisonment and fine), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 3, 29 Mar. 2009.

[117] Penal Code of Romania 2009, art. 262, https://perma.cc/895L-2YM2.

[118] Criminal Code 1996, art. 322, https://perma.cc/WP43-QHH8 (in Russian).

[119] Law No. 57/2018 of 13/08/2018 on Immigration and Emigration in Rwanda, arts. 44, 48, Aug. 13, 2018, https://perma.cc/AY69-NKVK.

[120] Immigration Act 10 of 2002, as amended, 4 Laws of Saint Christopher and Nevis Cap. 6.02, §§ 10(1), 22–23, 31 & 32.

[121] Immigration Act 18 of 1954, as amended, 8 Laws of Saint Lucia Cap. 10.01, §§ 8, 29, 36(a) & (b).

[122] Immigration Act 2004, ss 4(3), 10(3), 49(1)(a)(i) & sch 1, https://perma.cc/R6TJ-AV3C.

[123] Lei No. 5/2008, arts. 74(2)(a), 91, https://www.legis-palop.org/results.jsp?l&load=5616 (searchable database available by subscription only).

[124] Royal Decree No. 17/2/25/1337 of June 4 1952, arts. 3 (prohibition of illegal entry), 52 (detention until deportation), published on the website of the Ministry of Interior, https://perma.cc/AWD6-LJ6P.

[125] Loi n°71-10 du 25 janvier 1971 relative aux conditions d’admission, de séjour et d’établissement des étrangers, arts. 11, 13, https://perma.cc/Z5ZZ-M5N8, as amended by Loi n° 1978/12 du 29 janvier 1978 abrogeant et remplaçant l’article 11 de la loi n°71-10 du 25 janvier 1971 relative aux conditions d’admission, de séjour et d’établissement des étrangers, Jan. 29, 1978, https://perma.cc/MGM6-DT29.

[126] Law on Border Control 24/2018, art. 71, https://perma.cc/6ZBY-9N84, Criminal Code of Serbia, 2005, art. 350, https://perma.cc/6F94-MF98 (in Serbian).

[127] Immigration Decree of 1981, § 28, 6 Laws of Seychelles, Cap. 93 (rev. ed., 2010), https://perma.cc/RM25-EFBP

[128] Immigration Act (ch. 133, revised Jan. 1, 2008) s 6, https://perma.cc/GCD3-4TZL.

[129] Act No. 404/2011 Coll. on Stay of Aliens, art. 116, https://perma.cc/5RRZ-XBRW (in Slovak).

[130] Aliens Act 2011, art. 145,  https://perma.cc/N68X-T44C (in Slovenian).

[131] Immigration Act 2012, ss 10, 28 & 29, https://perma.cc/G6FK-KHUS; Immigration Regulations 2013, r 87, https://perma.cc/ZZ8D-TDYF.

[132] Immigration Act No. 13 of 2002, §§ 1, 9 & 49 (Mar. 12, 2003), https://perma.cc/U9CS-SVHJ.

[133] Immigration Act, Act No. 4522, Dec. 8, 1992, as amended by Act No. 15159, Dec. 12, 2017, arts. 46 & 93-3 (penalties), 99-2 (exemption), https://perma.cc/F8EY-YMBJ

[134] Ley Orgánica 4/2000 Boletín Oficial del Estado 2000, arts. 53.1.a and 55.1.b,  https://perma.cc/A928-ZNUE.

[135] Immigrants and Emigrants Act, 1949, §§ 9 (entry at approved ports of entry), 10 (documents required), 45(1)(a) & 45(1)(o) (punishment), https://perma.cc/CN4Y-GZ4F.

[136] Passport and Immigration Act of 1994 , issued on May 17, 1994, arts. 9 (prohibition of illegal entry), 18 (deportation) & 22 (house arrest or detention until deportation), https://perma.cc/MTP3-UUFF.

[137] Immigration Act 17 of 1982, §§ 4 & 14 (Mar. 1, 1987), https://perma.cc/9AV5-A5MT.

[138] 20 kap. 1 - 4 §§; 7-8 §§ Utlänningslag (SFS 2005:716), https://perma.cc/9AQT-REKU.

[139] Ausländer- und Integrationsgesetz [AIG], as amended, art. 115, paras. 1a, 1d (penalties) & art. 115, paras. 3–5 (possibility of deportation without penalties), https://perma.cc/3DYS-TWE8.

[140] Immigration Act (May 21, 1999, as amended Nov. 16, 2016) art. 74, https://perma.cc/4E3W-CJVX (in Chinese), https://perma.cc/V7R9-SLUS (English translation); Criminal Code of the Republic of China (Jan. 1, 1935, as amended May 10, 2019) art. 95, https://perma.cc/3DDM-9PKQ (in Chinese), https://perma.cc/XNP5-VHF9 (English translation).

[141] Criminal Code of Republic of Tajikistan No. 574, 1997, art. 335, https://perma.cc/Z7HG-7Y4E.

[142] Immigration Act of 1998, §§ 28 & 45 (rev. ed., 2016), https://perma.cc/UN5N-W3GL.

[143] Immigration Act, B.E. 2522 (1979), arts. 54 & 62, https://perma.cc/Y3X8-F8ZL.

[144] Loi N° 87-12 du 18 novembre 1987 relative à la police des étrangers, art. 18, Nov. 18, 1987, https://perma.cc/E3YA-93CJ.

[145] Immigration Act (Cap. 25.02), ss 6, 22, 26, 33(1)(i) & 34, https://perma.cc/2ETK-DWJW.

[146] Immigration Act, Act 41 of 1969, as amended, § 40(a), Laws of Trinidad and Tobago Ch. 18:01, https://perma.cc/35DE-XH2V.

[147] Law No. 7 of 1968, arts. 4 (prohibition of illegal entry), 18 (deportation) & 23 (imprisonment and a fine), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 11, 8 Mar. 1968.

[148] Law No. 6458 [2013], arts. 102(1)(a) & 54(1)(h), as amended Oct. 29, 2016 (unofficial translation), https://perma.cc/LR9N-JHNV.

[149] Criminal Code of Turkmenistan 2010, No. 104-IV, art. 214, https://perma.cc/XG7H-SK73 (in Russian).

[150] Immigration Ordinance, Cap. 5.01, §§ 4 (leave to enter), 102(1)(a)-(b) (unlawful entry), https://perma.cc/8LCH-E7ZZ.

[151] Immigration Act s 17(1)(i), https://perma.cc/JK42-R43M.

[152] Immigration Act of 1970 §§ 11 & 21 (May 1, 1970), https://perma.cc/6THJ-YDAQ.

[153] Criminal Code 2001, art. 332-2, https://perma.cc/J7UW-SPY2 (in Ukrainian).

[154] Federal Law No. 17 of 2017, arts. 3 (prohibition of illegal entry) & 31 (deportation and imprisonment), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 622(bis), 28 Sept. 2017.

[155] Immigration Act 1971, c. 77, pt. III, § 24(1)(a) (illegal entry), https://perma.cc/2BZJ-Y9PF

[156] Ley 18250 de Migraciones, Boletin Oficial Jan. 17, 2008, art. 51.a, https://perma.cc/7CTC-YB4J.

[157] Criminal Code, 2015, art. 223, https://perma.cc/Z22H-GZWN (in Russian).

[158] Immigration Act 2010, ss 20, 26, 83, https://perma.cc/HLR5-Q4YJ; Penalty Notice Regulation Order No. 181 of 2011, https://perma.cc/J3D8-M3EJ

[159] Ley de extranjeria y Migración No. 37944, May 24, 2004, art. 38, https://perma.cc/73XJ-2TJ6.

[160] Law on Foreigners’ Entry into, Exit from, Transit through and Residence in Vietnam, 47/2014/QH13, https://perma.cc/AX7Z-8QDX; Decree 73/2010/ND-CP: Regulations Sanctioning Administrative Violations in the Field of Security, Order and Social Safety, https://perma.cc/9LL4-UMSF (in Vietnamese).

[161] Immigration and Deportation Act No. 18 of 2010, §§ 11 & 56 (Apr. 13, 2010), https://perma.cc/C9F6-XAD6.

[162] Immigration Act, § 11 (June 1, 1979), https://perma.cc/4B34-5YRV.

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Last Updated: 07/24/2020