Germany maintains a strict separation between intelligence and law enforcement/police agencies. Intelligence agencies are therefore prohibited from using police powers to gather information. There are three intelligence agencies at the federal level, two of which focus on domestic intelligence, whereas the third one, the Federal Intelligence Service, focuses on foreign intelligence. Intelligence gathering in Germany is regulated by the acts establishing the three federal intelligence agencies and the Act to Restrict the Privacy of Correspondence, Mail, and Telecommunications. The expanded powers of the law enforcement and police agencies to maintain national security are contained in the Act on the Federal Criminal Police Office, the Act on the Federal Police, the Act on the Customs Investigation Bureau and the Customs Investigation Offices, and the Code of Criminal Procedure. The intelligence and law enforcement agencies may access, intercept, and request stored communications data, subject to limits specified in applicable laws. The intelligence agencies are subject to extensive administrative as well as parliamentary oversight, which includes several specialized parliamentary control panels but also general parliamentary oversight.
In Germany, the task of maintaining national security is divided between the intelligence and the law enforcement and police agencies. Because Germany is a federation, there are federal as well as state agencies. In addition, there is a strict separation between intelligence and police agencies, although their areas of responsibility might overlap nonetheless.
The strict separation was established after the Second World War in order to prevent an accumulation of police and intelligence powers in an agency like the Nazi’s Secret State Police (Gestapo). The Allied Occupation Forces made the separation a precondition of approval of the German Basic Law, the country’s constitution, which provides for the establishment of police and law enforcement agencies as well as an intelligence agency. The law therefore states that the intelligence agencies are not authorized to use force or other types of police powers to gather information.
The three existing federal intelligence agencies are the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, BfV), the Military Counter-Intelligence Service (Militärischer Abschirmdienst, MAD), and the Federal Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst, BND). The BfV and the MAD gather domestic intelligence, whereas the BND focuses on foreign intelligence.
In addition, following the September 11 terrorist attacks and the subsequent terrorist attacks in Madrid and London, federal law enforcement/police agencies were also given preventive powers to protect against “homegrown terrorists,” including, among other things, the authority to intercept communications. Agencies granted such powers include the Federal Criminal Police Office, the Federal Police, and the Customs Investigation Bureau and Customs Investigation Offices.
On April 20, 2016, however, the German Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the Act on the Federal Criminal Police Office was partially unconstitutional, because various provisions that deal with the investigative powers of the Federal Criminal Police Office for fighting international terrorism were not proportional. The Court criticized the legal requirements for carrying out covert surveillance measures as too broad and unspecific and held that the norms allowing the transfer of data to third-party authorities and to authorities in third countries lacked sufficient legal restrictions. The provisions that were declared unconstitutional will mainly remain in force, subject to restrictions, up to and including June 30, 2018.
In June 2016, in reaction to terrorist attacks in Paris and Istanbul, the Federal Government published a draft act which would amend several laws in order to improve information sharing between national and foreign agencies fighting international terrorism. Among other things, the act would establish a common database for the BfV and foreign intelligence agencies and expand the powers of the BND and of the Federal Police.
II. Intelligences Agencies
A. Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV)
The BfV is an executive agency that falls under the authority of the Federal Ministry of the Interior. Its purpose is to protect the free democratic order and the existence and the security of the Federation and the German states. The law provides that the BfV is required to cooperate with its counterparts at the state level to ensure the protection of the constitution.
The agency focuses its work on fighting and collecting information on politically motivated crimes (left- and right-wing extremism); Islamist terrorism and other extremist efforts of foreigners posing a threat to national security; espionage, including cyber espionage and industrial espionage; and the Scientology Organization.
According to section 3 of the Act on the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, the agencies for the protection of the constitution are tasked with the collection and analysis of information, intelligence, and documents relating to individuals or subject matter, concerning
- directed against the free democratic order; or
- threatening the existence or the security of the federation or one of its states; or
- aimed at unlawfully hampering constitutional bodies of the federation or one of its states or their members in the performance of their duties; or
- jeopardizing external relations of Germany through the use of violence or preparation thereof; or
- directed against the idea of international understanding (art. 9, para. 2 of the German Basic Law), in particular against the peaceful coexistence of nations (art. 26, para. 1 of the German Basic Law); or concerning
- activities threatening national security or intelligence activities carried out on behalf of a foreign power (counterintelligence).
In addition, the agencies for the protection of the constitution participate in security vetting procedures for persons working in sensitive areas.
When the requirements of section 3 of the Act on the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution are fulfilled, the agency may use confidential informants, surveillance, telecommunications surveillance, image and sound recordings, false documents, and false vehicle license plates in order to gather intelligence. It may also request information from postal or telecommunication services, financial institutions, airlines, and Internet service providers.
B. Military Counter-Intelligence Service (MAD)
The MAD forms part of the Federal Ministry of Defense. Its purpose and tasks are similar to the BfV, but with the difference that it focuses on efforts and activities that target personnel, departments, or facilities of the Federal Ministry of Defense and are carried out by individuals who are members of, or are employed by the ministry of defense and its agencies. Section 3 of the Military Counter-Intelligence Service Act provides that the BfV and the MAD are required to cooperate closely and to provide mutual support and assistance.
Even though the MAD generally focuses on gathering domestic intelligence, as an exception, it is also authorized to collect and analyze information during the course of special foreign assignments of the German Federal Armed Forces or during the course of humanitarian missions. Other foreign intelligence gathering is prohibited.
C. Federal Intelligence Service (BND)
The BND reports directly to the federal chancellery and is generally the only intelligence agency authorized to gather foreign intelligence. For this purpose, it collects and analyzes information that is of importance for German foreign and security policy. It is also authorized to request information from postal or telecommunication services, financial institutions, airlines, and Internet service providers, as well as information required for the performance of its functions, including personal data, from every authority, and to inspect official registers.
The intelligence objectives of the BND are defined by the mission statement of the federal government. The mission statement currently focuses on proliferation, international terrorism, failing states, and conflicts over natural resources. Regions that it currently prioritizes are the Near and Middle East, North Africa, and West and Central Asia.
III. Legislative Framework
The work of the intelligence agencies is undertaken in accordance with the legislative framework of the Act on the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, the Act on the Military Counter-Intelligence Service, the Act on the Federal Intelligence Service, and the Act to Restrict the Privacy of Correspondence, Mail, and Telecommunications (Article 10 Act).
For law enforcement and police agencies, authorizations are contained in the Act on the Federal Criminal Police Office, the Act on the Federal Police, the Act on the Customs Investigation Bureau and the Customs Investigation Offices, and the Code of Criminal Procedure.
IV. Interception and Transmission of Communications
Article 10 of the German Basic Law provides that the privacy of correspondence, mail, and telecommunications is inviolable. Restrictions may only be imposed pursuant to law. If the restriction serves to protect the free, democratic order or the existence or security of the German federation or of a German state, the law may provide that the affected person will not be informed of the measure.
The abovementioned German intelligence and law enforcement agencies have been authorized to access, intercept, and request stored communications data. This authority and its limits are delineated in article 10 of the Basic Law as noted above, in the specific acts establishing the agencies, in the Article 10 Act, and in the Telecommunications Act.
The German Federal Constitutional Court has held that the transmission of subscriber data by telecommunications providers to a requesting agency is only permissible if there is a legal norm authorizing the agency to request the data and an additional legal norm obligating the telecommunications provider to transfer the data (“double door model”). If the agency is authorized by law to request communications data, the Telecommunications Act requires telecommunications providers to immediately comply with such a request. “Telecommunications providers” are defined as anyone who exclusively or occasionally provides telecommunications services or who contributes to the provision of such services.
Anyone who operates a telecommunications network that provides publicly available telecommunications services to more than ten thousand participants is obligated to install a surveillance system that complies with the technical requirements set out in the Telecommunications Surveillance Directive and the technical guideline adopted by the German Federal Network Agency. Telecommunications providers must ensure that they are at all times capable of being informed by telephone of incoming requests and their urgency, and that they are able to accept and process such requests during regular business hours.
The intelligence agencies are subject to administrative as well as parliamentary oversight. There are several specialized parliamentary control panels that were set up to scrutinize the work of the intelligence agencies, but they are also subject to the general framework of parliamentary oversight.
A. Parliamentary Oversight
1. Parliamentary Control Panel (PKGr)
Article 45d of the German Basic Law provides that the German Parliament must appoint a panel to scrutinize the federal intelligence activities. Based on this constitutional provision, the Parliament enacted the Act on the Parliamentary Control of the Intelligence Activities of the Federation, which established the Parliamentary Control Panel (PKGr). The PKGr oversees the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, the Military Counter-Intelligence Service, and the Federal Intelligence Service.
The members of the PKGr are appointed by the Parliament from among their members; the Parliament also decides the number of members, the composition, and the PKGr’s working methods. The Parliamentary Control Panel currently has nine members. The deliberations of the PKGr are conducted in secret.
The federal government is required to disclose comprehensive information on the general activities of the federal intelligence services and of activities of particular importance to the Panel, as well as on other procedures if requested by the PKGr. Furthermore, the PKGr may require the federal government and the federal intelligence agencies to release files and other documents in official safekeeping and to transmit data stored in data files. It may also obtain access to all official premises and interview members of the intelligence services and the federal government. The courts and public authorities are required to provide legal and administrative assistance.
In addition, the Act on the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, the Act on the Military Counter-Intelligence Service, and the Article 10 Act also contain special notification requirements.
The PKGr reports to the German Parliament on its oversight activities halfway through and at the end of each electoral term. The reports are publicly available in the Parliamentary Material Information System (DIP).
2. Article 10 Commission
Restrictions on the privacy of mail and telecommunications undertaken by the federal intelligence agencies pursuant to article 10 of the German Basic Law are monitored by the Article 10 Commission. The Article 10 Commission is appointed by the Parliamentary Control Panel and is composed of four members. The chairperson must be qualified to hold judicial office. In addition, there are four alternate members who may take part in the meetings with the right to speak and to ask questions.
The G10 Commission decides ex officio or on the basis of complaints whether restrictions on the privacy of mail and telecommunications are permissible and necessary. The oversight extends to the entire scope of collecting, processing, and using the personal data obtained pursuant to the Article 10 Act by the federal intelligence agencies.
Before a restriction on the privacy of mail and telecommunications can be enforced, the federal ministry in charge has the obligation to report every month to the Article 10 Commission and to request approval. In cases of imminent danger, a restriction may be enforced without prior approval. Approval must be obtained without undue delay.
3. Confidential Committee of the Budget Committee
The operating budgets of the federal intelligence agencies are not submitted to the general budget committee, but approved by a special committee called the Confidential Committee of the Budget Committee, which works under conditions of secrecy. The members are elected by the German Parliament according to the process used for the election of the members of the PKGr. The Federal Budget Code provides that the Confidential Committee of the Budget Committee has the same control rights as the PKGr laid down in sections 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, and 13 of the Parliamentary Control Panel Act. These rights include access to files and data stored in data files, access to all official premises, and the right to interview members of the intelligence services and the federal government.
The PKGr and the Confidential Committee are obligated to consult with and advise each other in order to avoid oversight gaps.
4. General Parliamentary Oversight
In addition, the work of the federal intelligence agencies is subject to general parliamentary oversight. This includes responding to requests from committees of inquiry and other specialized committees, answering questions in general debates and in debates on matters of topical interest, and answering formalized requests (interpellations) from minority groupings and individual members of Parliament. The Federal Constitutional Court has held that communications concerning contacts with foreign intelligence services cannot be withheld from a committee of inquiry by generally invoking the interests of the state; instead, specific reasons must be given.
B. Administrative Oversight
1. Administrative and Technical Supervision by Competent Federal Ministry
The Federal Chancellery as well as the Federal Ministry of the Interior and the Federal Ministry of Defense are authorized to request statements and issue instructions for the respective intelligence agency under their supervision.
2. Federal Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information
The Federal Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information monitors compliance of the federal intelligent agencies with data protection laws, in particular the Federal Data Protection Act, but also with the special data provisions contained in the acts establishing the federal intelligence agencies. The Commissioner has no powers with regard to data collected through mail and telecommunications surveillance. In these cases, responsibility lies solely with the Article 10 Commission.
The Commissioner is appointed by the German Parliament on a proposal from the federal government for a five-year term. He or she is independent in the discharge of his or her duties and subject only to the law.
3. Federal Court of Audit
The Federal Court of Audit determines if public finances have been properly spent and efficiently administered. A body called the “College of Three” composed of the president or vice president of the Court of Audit, the head of the unit, and the responsible audit director is in charge of the audit of the federal intelligence agencies’ budgets. The College of Three informs the Confidential Committee of the Budget Committee, the PKGr, the federal ministry supervising the intelligence agency, and the Federal Ministry of Finance about the results of the audit of the annual account and the budgetary and economic management of the respective federal intelligence agency.
Prepared by Jenny Gesley
Foreign Law Specialist
 Military Governors’ Letter to Parliamentary Council Defining Federal Police Power, Apr. 14, 1949, FRUS 1949/III, Doc. No. 98, https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1949v03/d98, archived at http://perma.cc/4KR9-2QM5; Letter from the Military Governors to Dr. Konrad Adenauer, President of the Parliamentary Council, approving the Basic Law, May 12, 1949, Military Government Gazette – Germany (British Zone), No. 35, Part 2 B at 29, http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/Founding%205%20ENG.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/2E3X-5QA4.
 Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland [Grundgesetz] [GG] [Basic Law], May 23, 1949, Bundesgesetzblatt [BGBl.] [Federal Law Gazette] I at 1, art. 87, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/ bundesrecht/ gg/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/3VDB-NJW4, unofficial English translation at http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_gg/basic_law_for_the_federal_republic_of_germany.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/MER4-79JH.
 Gesetz über die Zusammenarbeit des Bundes und der Länder in Angelegenheiten des Verfassungsschutzes und über das Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (Bundesverfassungsschutzgesetz - BVerfSchG) [Act on the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution], Dec. 20, 1990, BGBl. I at 2954, 2970, as amended, § 2, para. 1, sentence 3, § 8, para. 3, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/bverfschg/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/C858-Y6VY; Gesetz über den militärischen Abschirmdienst (MAD-Gesetz - MADG) [Act on the Military Counter-Intelligence Service], Dec. 20, 1990, BGBl. I at 2954, 2977, as amended, § 1, para. 4, § 4, para. 2, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/madg/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/99CA-LB6W; Gesetz über den Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND-Gesetz - BNDG) [Act on the Federal Intelligence Service], Dec. 20, 1990, BGBl. I at 2954, 2979, as amended, §1, para. 1, sentence 2, § 2, para. 3, sentence 1, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/bndg/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/7DTM-H656. Unofficial English translations of all three acts are available at http://www.ennir.be/sites/default/files/pictures/GermanLawsgoverningParliamentary ControlofIntelligenceActivities.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/9VKD-LDJH.
 Gesetz über das Bundeskriminalamt und die Zusammenarbeit des Bundes und der Länder in kriminalpolizeilichen Angelegenheiten (Artikel 1 des Gesetzes über das Bundeskriminalamt und die Zusammenarbeit des Bundes und der Länder in kriminalpolizeilichen Angelegenheiten) (Bundeskriminalamtgesetz - BKAG) [Act on the Federal Criminal Police Office], July 7, 1997, BGBl. I at 1650, as amended, § 7, paras. 3, 4; § 20b, paras. 3, 4; § 20l; § 20m; § 20m; § 22, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/bkag_1997/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/XJ9R-4HUX.
 Gesetz über die Bundespolizei (Bundespolizeigesetz - BPolG) [Act on the Federal Police], Oct. 19, 1994, BGBl. I at 2978, 2979, as amended, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/bpolbg/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/LEU5-HE59.
 Gesetz über das Zollkriminalamt und die Zollfahndungsämter (Zollfahndungsdienstgesetz - ZFdG) [Act on the Customs Investigation Bureau and the Customs Investigation Offices] Aug. 16, 2002, BGBl. I at 3202, as amended, § 7, paras. 5-9; § 15, paras. 2–6; §§ 23a–23g, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/zfdg/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/T7J8-T9TV.
 For more information, see Jenny Gesley, Germany: Federal Constitutional Court Declares Terrorism Legislation Partially Unconstitutional, Global Legal Monitor (May 3, 2016), //www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/germany-federal-constitutional-court-declares-terrorism-legislation-partially-unconstitutional/, archived at http://perma.cc/HEM5-JBC8.
 Bundesregierung [Federal Government], Gesetzentwurf der Bundesregierung Entwurf eines Gesetzes zum besseren Informationsaustausch bei der Bekämpfung des internationalen Terrorismus [Draft Act of the Federal Government, Draft Act to Introduce Improved Information Sharing for the Fight Against International Terrorism], https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Gesetzestexte/entw-infoaustausch-terrorbek.pdf;jsessionid=8F0CDB27679238C6F4A52F3143693585.2_cid287?__blob=publicationFile, archived at http://perma.cc/2WPG-4GV8.
 Act on the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution § 2, para. 1.
 Id. § 1, para. 1.
 Id. § 1, para. 2.
 Federal Ministry of the Interior, 2014 Annual Report on the Protection of the Constitution. Facts and Trends, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/embed/annual-report-2014-summary.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/XTU5-BKUR.
 Act on the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, § 3, para. 2; Gesetz über die Voraussetzungen und das Verfahren von Sicherheitsüberprüfungen des Bundes [Sicherheitsüberprüfungsgesetz] [SÜG] [Security Screening Act], Apr. 20, 1994, BGBl. I at 867, as amended, § 3, paras. 2, 3, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/ bundesrecht/s_g/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/3GBJ-JVU5.
 Act on the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution §§ 8, 9.
 Id. § 8a.
 Act on the Military Counter-Intelligence Service § 1.
 Id. § 14.
 Id. § 14, para. 1, sentence 3.
 Act on the Federal Intelligence Service §§ 1, 12.
 Id. § 2a, § 8, para. 3.
 Auftragsprofil der Bundesregierung [Mission Statement of the Federal Government], Bundesnachrichtendienst [Federal Intelligence Service], http://www.bnd.bund.de/DE/Auftrag/Aufgaben/ Auftragsprofil_der_Bundesregierung/Auftragsprofil_node.html (last visited June 3, 2016), archived at http://perma.cc/72PM-73VV.
 Gesetz zur Beschränkung des Brief-, Post- und Fernmeldegeheimnisses [Artikel 10-Gesetz] [G 10] [Act to Restrict the Privacy of Correspondence, Mail, and Telecommunications] [Article 10 Act], June 26, 2001, BGBl. I at 1254, 2298, as amended, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/g10_2001/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/6YVZ-UCCU, unofficial English translation available at http://www.ennir.be/sites/default/files/ pictures/GermanLawsgoverningParliamentaryControlofIntelligenceActivities.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/9VKD-LDJH.
 Strafprozessordnung [StPO] [Code of Criminal Procedure], Apr. 7, 1987, BGBl. I at 1074, 1319, as amended, §§ 100a-100j, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/stpo/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/ZA7K-47GY, unofficial English translation at http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_ stpo/german_code_of_criminal_procedure.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/8PSW-G87S. (English translation only current up to 2014).
 Telekommunikationsgesetz [TKG] [Telecommunications Act], June 22, 2004, BGBl. I at 1190, as amended, §§ 110–115, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/tkg_2004/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/WP2Y-XH69.
 Bundesverfassungsgericht [BVerfG] [Federal Constitutional Court], 100 Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts [BVerfGE] [Decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court] 313, 366 et seq., http://www.bundesverfassungsgericht.de/ SharedDocs/Entscheidungen/EN/1999/07/rs19990714_1bvr 222694en.html, archived at http://perma.cc/QBZ9-3B9A.
 Telecommunications Act, § 3, no. 6.
 Telekommunikations-Überwachungsverordnung [TKÜV] [Telecommunications Surveillance Directive], Nov. 3, 2005, BGBl. I at 3136, as amended, §§ 3, 5, para. 1, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/tk_v_2005/ gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/4MFL-9LW8; Technical Guideline for the Implementation of Legal Measures for the Surveillance of Telecommunications and the Disclosure of Information, Oct. 15, 2015, http://www.bundesnetzagentur.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Sachgebiete/Telekommunikation/Unternehmen_Institutionen/
__blob=publicationFile&v=7, archived at http://perma.cc/F382-S4TE.
 Telecommunications Surveillance Directive § 12.
 Gesetz über die parlamentarische Kontrolle nachrichtendienstlicher Tätigkeit des Bundes [Kontrollgremiumgesetz] [PKGrG] [Act on the Parliamentary Control of the Intelligence Activities of the Federation] [Parliamentary Control Panel Act], July 29, 2009, BGBl. I at 2346, as amended, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/pkgrg/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/2ZCX-LUS4, unofficial English translation available at http://www.ennir.be/sites/default/files/pictures/GermanLawsgoverningParliamentaryControlof IntelligenceActivities.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/9VKD-LDJH.
 Parliamentary Control Panel Act § 2.
 Mitglieder des Parlamentarischen Kontrollgremiums (PKGr) [Members of the Parliamentary Control Panel (PKGr)], Deutscher Bundestag [German Parliament], http://www.bundestag.de/bundestag/gremien18/ pkgr/mitglieder/261126 (last visited June 3, 2016), archived at http://perma.cc/GN62-WFLQ.
 Id. § 10.
 Parliamentary Control Panel Act § 4.
 Id. § 5.
 Act on the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution § 8a, para. 6.
 Act on the Military Counter-Intelligence Service § 14, paras. 6, 7.
 Article 10 Act § 14.
 Parliamentary Control Panel Act § 13.
 The latest report for the period between November 2013 and December 2015 was published in March 2016. See Deutscher Bundestag: Drucksachen und Protokolle [BT-Drs.] 18/7962, http://dipbt.bundestag.de/doc/btd/ 18/079/1807962.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/LU7G-PCS7.
 Article 10 Act § 1, para. 2, § 15.
 Id. § 15.
 Id. § 15, para. 5.
 Id. § 15, para. 6.
 Bundeshaushaltsordnung [Federal Budget Code], Aug. 19, 1969, BGBl. I at 1284, as amended, § 10a, para. 2, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/bho/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/Y8Y8-G6J4.
 Federal Budget Code § 10a, para. 2.
 Parliamentary Control Panel Act § 9, para. 1.
 Id. § 1, para. 2.
 Basic Law art. 44.
 Id. art. 43, para. 1.
 Id. art. 38, para. 1, sentence 2, art. 20, para. 2, sentence 2.
 BVerfG, 124 BVerfGE 78, 123 et seq., press release summarizing the decision in English available at https://www.bundesverfassungsgericht.de/SharedDocs/Pressemitteilungen/EN/2009/bvg09-084.html, archived at http://perma.cc/7JJW-SCUC.
 Bundesdatenschutzgesetz [Federal Data Protection Act], Jan. 14, 2003, BGBl. I at 66, as amended, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/bdsg_1990/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/5AH5-8YT2, unofficial English translation available at http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_bdsg/federal_data_ protection_act.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/AD3N-DPY3.
 Federal Act on Protection of the Constitution §§ 14, 15, 22a; Act on the Federal Intelligence Service §§ 2, 9a, 10.
 Federal Data Protection Act § 22.
 Id. § 22, para. 4.
 Gesetz über den Bundesrechnungshof (Bundesrechnungshofgesetz – BRHG) [Act on the Federal Court of Audit], July 11, 1985, BGBl. I at 1445, as amended, §§ 9, 19, https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/brhg_ 1985/gesamt.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/23VP-M2YP.
 Federal Budget Code § 10a, para. 3.
Last Updated: 09/27/2016