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MARC PROPOSAL NO. 2016-05

DATE: May 27, 2016
REVISED:

NAME: Defining New X47 Fields for Named Events in the MARC 21 Authority and Bibliographic Formats

SOURCE: OCLC

SUMMARY: This paper proposes the establishment of a new X47 series of fields to accommodate coding of named events used as subject access points in the MARC Authority and Bibliographic formats.

KEYWORDS: Field X47 (AD, BD); Field 647 (BD); Named Events (AD, BD); Subject Access Points (AD, BD); Faceted Subject Terminology (AD, BD); FAST (AD, BD)

RELATED: 2016-DP09

STATUS/COMMENTS:
05/27/16 – Made available to the MARC community for discussion.

06/25/16 – Results of MARC Advisory Committee discussion: Approved as submitted, with the understanding that OCLC will generate and distribute a list of LCSH headings which are modelled as events in FAST.

08/10/16 - Results of MARC Steering Group review - Agreed with the MAC decision.


Proposal No. 2016-05: Defining New X47 Fields for Named Events

1. BACKGROUND

Discussion Paper No. 2016-DP09 outlined the issues connected with use of Bibliographic format tag 611 to code both named events along with meetings or conferences per the definition of the X11 series of access points.

The issue surfaced as a result of the implementation and use of FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) within OCLC’s WorldCat database. FAST separates subject terminology into distinct facets, i.e., personal names, corporate names, geographic names, chronology, events, form, titles, and topics. Most of these various subject facets are readily accommodated by Bibliographic format tags 600, 610, 630, 648, 650, 651, and 655.

The exception is tag 611 which has been used to code meetings and conferences along with all other named events including battles, earthquakes, famines, financial crises, hurricanes, riots, strikes, volcanic eruptions, wars, etc.

Examples of the current bibliographic coding practice:

611 07 $aBunker Hill, Battle of (Boston, Massachusetts : 1775)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01710024

611 27 $aFamine (Ireland : 1845-1852)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353092

611 27 $aHurricane Katrina (2005)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755264

611 27 $aWatts Riot (Los Angeles, California : 1965)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01404356

611 27 $aWorld War (1939-1945)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01180924

This coding practice has resulted in confusion and questions from catalogers because the existing definition of bibliographic tag 611 limits its use to meeting or conference names in addition to a narrow list of other types found among the ambiguous headings listed in MARC 21 Bibliographic Format, Appendix E, including athletic contests, competitions, contests, expeditions (military or scientific), expositions, fairs, festivals, games (events), parades, sports events, tournaments, etc., i.e., events which could also be regarded as responsible agents.

Appendix E lists various events as either tag 650 or X11 further complicating the need for clear identification of named events, i.e., events which cannot act as a responsible agent and are distinctly different from meetings and conferences as well as other topical subjects.

2. DISCUSSION

Clear definitions and predictable coding practices are needed to accommodate coding of named events. A change to coding practices in this area would potentially benefit other subject access schemes as well as FAST.

FAST does not make use of coding available in tag 654 (Faceted Topical Terms), opting instead for the differentiation of facets provided through use of tags 600-651 and 655. The MARC 21 Authority and Bibliographic formats have changed in the past to accommodate FAST with the addition of field 648 to allow coding of chronological terms, i.e., individual or ranges of dates (see Proposal No. 2002-13). Named events are distinctly different in that a name is associated with the event as well as dates and locations. Other subject schemes which do not currently make these distinctions, such as Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), generally treat named events as topics.

Discussion paper no. 2016-DP09 presented two options: 1) Redefine the X11 series of tags to include named events, and: 2) Define a new X47 series of tags to code named events. A straw vote demonstrated that most members of the MARC Advisory Committee preferred the second option on the basis that it would be desirable to maintain a distinction between named events which cannot be regarded as responsible agents versus those which can as found in existing X11 fields. There was also a preference for separately coding associated dates and places for named events.

3. PROPOSAL

Define new X47 fields in the Authority and Bibliographic formats:

Authority format:

147 – Heading--Named Events (NR)

447 – See From Tracing--Named Events (R)

547 – See Also From Tracing--Named Events (R)

747 – Established Heading Linking Entry--Named Events (R)

Field Definition and Scope
Named events which cannot be regarded as responsible agents, e.g., battles, earthquakes, famines, financial crises, fires, hurricanes, riots, strikes, volcanic eruptions, wars, etc.

Named events which can regarded as responsible agents such as meetings or conferences as well as athletic contests, competitions, expeditions, expositions, fairs, festivals, sports events, tournaments, etc., are recorded in X11 fields.

First IndicatorUndefined
# - Undefined

Second IndicatorUndefined   [147/447/547]
# - Undefined

Second IndicatorThesaurus   [747]
0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
2 - Medical Subject Headings
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
4 - Source not specified
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
7 - Source specified in subfield $2

Subfield Codes
Main term portion
$a - Named event (NR)
$c - Location of named event (R)
$d - Date of named event (NR)
$g - Miscellaneous information (R)

Tracing and linking subfields
$i - Relationship information (R)   [447/547/747]
$w - Control subfield (NR)   [447/547/747]
$0 - Authority record control number or standard number (R)   [547/747]
$2 - Source of heading or term (NR)   [747]
$4 - Relationship code (R)   [447/547/747]
$5 - Institution to which field applies (R)   [447/547/747]
$6 - Linkage (NR)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

Subject subdivision portion
$v - Form subdivision (R)
$x - General subdivision (R)
$y - Chronological subdivision (R)
$z - Geographic subdivision (R)

Bibliographic format:

647 – Subject Added Entry--Named Events (R)

Field Definition and Scope
Named events which cannot be regarded as responsible agents, e.g., battles, earthquakes, famines, financial crises, fires, hurricanes, riots, strikes, volcanic eruptions, wars, etc.

Named events which can regarded as responsible agents such as meetings or conferences as well as athletic contests, competitions, expeditions, expositions, fairs, festivals, sports events, tournaments, etc., are recorded in field 611.

First IndicatorUndefined
# - Undefined

Second IndicatorThesaurus
0 - Library of Congress Subject Headings
1 - LC subject headings for children's literature
2 - Medical Subject Headings
3 - National Agricultural Library subject authority file
4 - Source not specified
5 - Canadian Subject Headings
6 - Répertoire de vedettes-matière
7 - Source specified in subfield $2

Subfield Codes
Main term portion
$a - Named event (NR)
$c - Location of named event (R)
$d - Date of named event (NR)
$g - Miscellaneous information (R)

Subject subdivision portion
$v - Form subdivision (R)
$x - General subdivision (R)
$y - Chronological subdivision (R)
$z - Geographic subdivision (R)

Control subfields
$0 - Authority record control number or standard number (R)
$2 - Source of heading or term (NR)
$3 - Materials specified (NR)
$6 - Linkage (NR)
$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)

4. EXAMPLES

Authority record examples:

147 ## $aEruption of Vesuvius$c(Italy :$d79)

147 ## $aIroquois Theater Fire$c(Chicago, Illinois :$d1903)

147 ## $aRevolution$c(Armenia : $d1917-1920)

147 ## $aStock Market Crash$d(1929)

447 ## $aBreed’s Hill, Battle of$c(Boston, Massachusetts :$d1775)

447 ## $aPotato famine$c(Ireland :$d1845-1852)

447 ## $aSubprime Mortgage Crisis$d(2008-2009)

447 ## $aSylmar Earthquake$c(California :$d1971)

547 #7 $aAmerican Civil War$d(1861-1865)

547 #7 $aBoston Marathon Bombing$c(Boston, Massachusetts :$d2013)

547 #7 $aChernobyl Nuclear Accident$c(Chornobylʹ, Ukraine :$d1986)

547 #7 $aWorld War$d(1939-1945)

Bibliographic record examples:

647 #7 $aBunker Hill, Battle of$c(Boston, Massachusetts :$d1775)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01710024

647 #7 $aCoal Strike$c(Great Britain :$d1984-1985)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst00865219

647 #7 $aEruption of Mount Saint Helens$c(Washington :$d1980)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353018

647 #7 $aFamine$c(Ireland :$d1845-1852)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01353092

647 #7 $aGlobal Financial Crisis$d(2008-2009)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755654

647 #7 $aHurricane Katrina$d(2005)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755264

647 #7 $aSan Fernando Earthquake$c(California :$d1971)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755420

647 #7 $aWatts Riot$c(Los Angeles, California :$d1965)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01404356

5. BIBFRAME DISCUSSION

Events will have higher visibility in BIBFRAME 2.0. See the spec proposal: //www.loc.gov/bibframe/docs/pdf/bf2-events-apr2016.pdf

6. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED CHANGES

6.1. In the MARC 21 Authority Format, define the following fields described in Section 3 above:

147 – Heading--Named Events (NR)
447 – See From Tracing--Named Events (R)
547 – See Also From Tracing--Named Events (R)
747 – Established Heading Linking Entry--Named Events (R)

6.2. In the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format, define the following field described in Section 3 above:

647 – Subject Added Entry--Named Events (R)


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