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MODS User Guidelines (ver. 3) Home » Top-level Elements and Attributes » Top-level Element: <targetAudience>

Top-level Element: <targetAudience>

Element <targetAudience>
Definition A description of the intellectual level of the audience for which the resource is intended.


Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Linking: ID; IDREF; altRepGroup

Miscellaneous: displayLabel; altFormat

Specific: None

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

Use this element whenever there is a specific audience for a resource (for example, a text marked up specifically for historians).

Do not use <targetAudience> to indicate audiences to whom access or use of the resource is limited; include this information in the <accessCondition> element.

  • When more than one target audience is recorded, the element is repeated.
  • Either a value from a controlled list or free text may be used. The Target Audience Code and Term Source Codes page, maintained by the Library of Congress, lists some appropriate vocabularies. The Library of Congress Linked Data Service contains URIs for audience designations derived from the MARC Target Audience Term List.



<targetAudience authority="marctarget">adolescent<targetAudience>

<targetAudience valueURI="">adult<targetAudience>

<targetAudience displayLabel="grade level">kindergarten<targetAudience>


A resource contains information targeted to both juvenile and adolescent audiences:

<targetAudience authority="marctarget">juvenile<targetAudience>
<targetAudience authority="marctarget">adolescent<targetAudience>



MARC Mapping (Bibliographic)

See MARC Mapping to MODS for the <targetAudience> element.

Dublin Core Mapping

The MODS to Dublin Core Metadata Element Set Mapping does not provide a mapping for <targetAudience>.


Last Updated: October 31, 2022