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Top-level Element: <subject>

Element <subject>
Definition A term or phrase representing the primary topic(s) on which a work is focused.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Internal Linking: altRepGroup

External Linking: xlink:href; ID

Miscellaneous: displayLabel; usage

Specific: None

Subelements <topic> <geographic> <temporal> <titleInfo> <name> <genre> <hierarchicalGeographic> <cartographics> <geographicCode> <occupation>
Examples EXAMPLES
Mappings MAPPINGS

GUIDELINES | EXAMPLES | MAPPINGS

Guidelines for Use

<subject> is a container element that contains subelements relating to the subject of the resource. Each subelement represents a type of subject, for example, <temporal> expresses a time period. The subject may be simple, meaning a single term expressed as a subelement of <subject>, or complex: multiple terms each expressed as a subelement of <subject>.

For example, if it is a place, use <subject><geographic>:

E.g. <subject><geographic>Chicago</geographic></subject>

If the term is none of the other types, use <subject><topic>:

E.g. <subject><topic>Musicology</topic></subject>

An example of a complex subject is "History of 18th century Chicago, Illinois where “18th century” is a temporal expression, and “Chicago” is a geographic term.  This is expressed as:

 <subject>

    <geographic>Chicago (Ill.)</geographic>
    <topic>History</topic>

    <temporal>18th century</temporal>

</subject>


If the subject is a controlled heading from an authoritative list, use the authority or authorityURI attribute to indicate which authority was used, and/or the valueURI attribute. If none of these attributes is present, the expression is assumed to be uncontrolled. When supplying authority, authorityURI or valueURI for complex subjects these attributes should be recorded on the <subject> element level only if they relate to the subject in its entirety. Otherwise record the attributes on the <subject> subelements to which they pertain.

The Library of Congress maintains an online listing of Subject Heading and Term Source Codes. New subject authority vocabularies can be registered with the Library of Congress; email [email protected] to suggest an authority.

If researchers are likely to be interested in the form or genre of an item, and not its subject content, using the MODS top-level <genre> element (not the <genre> subelement under <subject>) may be most appropriate.

It is recommended, when applicable, that  there be at least one <subject> element in a record. Values for <subject> typically answer such questions as who, what, where, and when. Description of subject content may not be applicable to some works (such as abstract art); in those cases, use of a <subject> element is unnecessary. While it is highly recommended that subject values be parsed into subelements, they may also be listed as a string under <subject><topic>.

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Subelement: <topic>

Definition Used as the tag for any topical subjects that are not appropriate in the <geographic>, <temporal>, <titleInfo>, <name>, <genre>, <hierarchicalGeographic>, or <occupation> subelements, or where the type is unknown.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: None

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

If the precise type of subject subelement string is unknown, <topic> is used--because <subject> is a container element.

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Subelement: <geographic>

Definition Used for simple geographic subject terms (as opposed to hierarchical geographic subjects for which <hierarchicalGeographic> is used).
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: None

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

If the geographic name is part of a corporate body name (i.e., United States. Senate), it is coded with the <name> subelement, not <geographic>.

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Subelement: <temporal>

Definition Used for chronological subject terms or temporal coverage.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Date: encoding; point; keyDate; qualifier; calendar

Specific: None

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

<temporal> may be expressed as a controlled subject term or as a structured date with an encoding attribute. Normalized dates are critical for effective searching. Dates should be formatted consistently, following the structure dictated by the formatting source used. If a structured date is used, indicate the formatting source using the encoding attribute. Use of the keyDate attribute is not recommended.

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Subelement: <titleInfo>

Definition A title used as a subject.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Internal Linking: altRepGroup

External Linking: ID

Miscellaneous: displayLabel

Specific: type

Subelements All subelements of the top-level element <titleInfo> may also be used under <subject><titleInfo>. These subelements are: <title>, <subTitle>, <partNumber>, <partName>, and <nonSort>.

Guidelines for Use

To express the title of a resource, use <titleInfo> as a top-level element, not as a subelement of <subject>. Use <titleInfo> as a subelement of <subject> when the subject of the resource is the work that has that title. See the <titleInfo> section of the guidelines for more explicit guidance.

Specific Attribute Information

type

Definition

Identifies what type of title is recorded.

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Subelement: <name>

Definition A name used as a subject.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Internal Linking: altRepGroup

External Linking: xlink:href; ID

Miscellaneous: displayLabel

Specific: type

Subelements <namePart> <nameIdentifier> <displayForm> <affiliation> <role> <description>

Guidelines for Use

Use <name> as a subelement of <subject> when the resource has as its subject the entity that has that name.

Examples:

<subject>

  <name type="personal">

    <namePart>Arthur Mitchell</namePart>

    <nameIdentifier>http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q3753500</nameIdentifier>

  </name>

</subject>


<subject>

  <name type="personal" authority="naf" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79041870">

    <namePart>Woolf, Virginia</namePart>

    <namePart type="date">1882-1936</namePart>

    <nameIdentifier>https://id.loc.gov/rwo/agents/n79041870</nameIdentifier>

  </name>

</subject>

Specific Attribute Information

type

Definition
The type of name. It is optional. If supplied, it is one of the following:
  • personal – Used for a person
  • corporate – Used for a company, institution of organization
  • conference – Used for a conference, meeting, or other named event
  • family – Used for a family

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Subelement: <genre>

Definition A genre or form used as part of a subject string when the subject authority distinguishes parts of the subject string (e.g. LCSH).
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Internal Linking: altRepGroup

Miscellaneous: displayLabel; usage

Specific: type

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

If describing the genre of a resource as a whole, use the main <genre> element. This <genre> subelement is used to facilitate mapping of subject authorities that use form subdivisions.

Suppose you want to express:

-          The subject: Photography--History--19th century

-          The genre:   Exhibitions

Depending on institutional cataloging policy,  the genre could be expressed either:

(1)    as part of the subject; or

(2)    as a top-level element pertaining to the resource.

The first case would be expressed as follows:

  <mods>

    <subject valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2010106177" displayLabel="Photography--History--19th century--Exhibitions">

           <topic valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85101206">Photography</topic>

           <topic valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85061212">History</topic>

           <temporal valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2002012475">19th century</temporal>

           <genre valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh99001275">Exhibitions</genre>

      </subject>

  </mods>

And the second:   

  <mods>

    <genre valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/genreForms/gf2014026098">Exhibition catalogs</genre>

    <subject valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2010106163" displayLabel="Photography--History--19th century">

        <topic valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85101206">Photography</topic>

        <topic valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85061212">History</topic>

        <temporal valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2002012475">19th century</temporal>

    </subject>

  </mods>

Specific Attribute Information

type

Definition
Distinguishes different aspects of genre, such as class or style.
Application
Optional; use if desired to categorize the genre.

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic>

Definition A geographic name--in a hierarchical form--for the resource.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Subelements <continent> <country> <region> <state> <territory> <county> <city> <citySection> <island> <area> <extraterrestrialArea>

Guidelines for Use

<hierarchicalGeographic> is a wrapper element for the hierarchical form of place name. This form can be applied to the degree of specificity that is known or relevant and used to generate browsable hierarchies. Explicit inclusion of the complete hierarchy is of potential benefit for automated consultation of a gazetteer to derive map coordinates or to support a map-based interface. In general, record the term most commonly used in the original language or its translation for the geographic entity. If a term from an authorized vocabulary is prefered, the authority attribute group may be employed. The subelement <state> is used for first order political divisions, which may be expressed using different terms depending on the country. For instance, the  first order political division in the U.S. is state; in the United Kingdom, England, Scotland, and Wales it is  country and the next order division (e.g. Yorkshire) is county.

Specific Subelement Information

The following subelements are defined for <hierarchicalGeographic>. In general, use the term most commonly used in the original language or its translation for the geographic entity. First order political divisions may have different terms depending on the country. For instance, first order political divisions in the U.S. are states; in United Kingdom, England, Scotland, and Wales are countries and next order divisions (e.g. Yorkshire) are counties. Each subelement has the following attributes: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration; level (to indicate hierarchical level) and period (to indicate when the entity existed and that it no longer exists)--as well as the authority attribute group: authority, authorityURI, and valueURI. The subelements region, citySection, and area also have the following respective specific attributes: regionType; citySectionType; areaType.

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><continent>

Definition Large land mass considered to be a continent such as Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America, and Australia.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3, 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><country>

Definition A political entity considered a country.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3 , 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><region>

Definition An area, usually one that has status as a jurisdiction, and usually incorporating more than one first level jurisdiction.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period; regionType

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3, 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

regionType

Definition

A specific type of region, such as ‘religious’ or ‘tourism’.

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><state>

Definition A first order political jurisdiction under country. The name of this subelement, “state” is a generalization and not intended to imply that a particular such entity is always called a state. It may be a state, province, canton, Länder, etc. depending on the country.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3, 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><territory>

Definition A geographical area belonging to or under the jurisdiction of a governmental authority.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3, 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><county>

Definition In some countries, e.g. England, the largest local administrative unit. In some countries, e.g. U.S., a political and administrative division of a state.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3, 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><city>

Definition An inhabited place incorporated as a city, town, etc.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3 , 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><citySection>

Definition A  smaller unit within a populated place, e.g., neighborhood, park, or street
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period; citySectionType

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3, 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

citySectionType

Definition

A specific type of city section, for exampleneighborhood, park, or street.

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><island>

Definition A tract of land surrounded by water but not itself a separate continent or country.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3, 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><area>

Definition A non-jurisdictional geographic entity.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period; areaType

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3, 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

areaType

Definition

A specific type of area, for example national park, river, Indian reservation, etc.

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Subelement: <hierarchicalGeographic><extraterrestrialArea>

Definition An extraterrestrial entity or space, for example a  solar system, galaxy, star system, or planet (including  a geographic feature of an individual planet).
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: level; period

Subelements None

Specific Attribute Information

level

Definition

The level within the geographic hierarchy. There is no need for @level for simple cases where the hierarchy is easily inferred. This attribute is useful, however, for cases when the hierarchy depends on context: When two places have the same level (e.g. the intersection of two streets), when the same place type is supplied more than once (e.g. two neighborhoods where one is contained within the other).

Application

It is recommended that levels begin with 1 (for highest level) and are consecutive, however this is not mandated. Levels could, for example, be 3, 5, and 9.

period

Definition

Indicates when the entity existed and that it no longer exists.

Application

The value should be an indication of when the entity existed (it could simply be a date).

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Subelement: <cartographics>

Definition Cartographic (maps or charts) data indicating spatial coverage.
Attributes Specific: None Specific: None
Subelements <coordinates> <scale> <projection>

Guidelines for Use

<cartographics> is a container element for the subelements described below. If desired, cartographic elements may be bound together with a geographic name (hierarchical or otherwise) within a <subject> element. <cartographics> can be extended using another schema.

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Subelement: <cartographics><coordinates>

Definition Contains a statement of coordinates covered by the resource.
Attributes

Common:

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: None

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

One or more statements may be supplied. If one is supplied, it is a point (i.e., a single location); if two, it is a line; if more than two, it is an n-sided polygon where n=number of coordinates assigned. No three points should be co-linear, and coordinates should be supplied in polygon-traversal order.

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Subelement: <cartographics><scale>

Definition A statement of scale, the ratio between the actual size and its representation.
Attributes

Common:

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: None

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

<scale> may include any equivalency statements, vertical scales, or vertical exaggeration statements for relief models and other three-dimensional items.

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Subelement: <cartographics><projection>

Definition A statement of projection, the method of representing the surface of a sphere or other shape on a plane.
Attributes

Common:

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: None

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

Includes the name of the projection and any associated information related to the properties of the projection, where applicable.

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Subelement: <geographicCode>

Definition A geographic area code associated with a resource.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: None

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

If the  geographic code represents the same entity as represented by a  <geographic> subelement both are included within the same <subject> element. If a geographic code and a geographic entity represent different areas they go in separate <subject> elements.  The geographic code should be from an established encoding scheme, such as the MARC List for Countries, MARC List for Geographic Areas, or “iso3166”.

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Subelement: <occupation>

Definition An occupation described by the resource.
Attributes

Common:

Authority: authority; authorityURI; valueURI

Language-related: lang; xml:lang; script; transliteration

Specific: None

Subelements None

Guidelines for Use

<occupation> is used when the subject term refers to an occupation. (It is not used to list the occupations of the creators of the described materials.) It is recommended to use terminology from an established controlled vocabulary, such as the Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT).

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EXAMPLES

General Best Practices:

valueURI, authority, and authorityURI attributes: Supplying valueURI, authority and authorityURI attributes is optional. When supplying valueURIs, the authority and/or authorityURI are superfluous, but may be included (as in the examples below) for clarity.

1. Simple subject

Best practice: When supplying authority, authorityURI or valueURI for simple subjects (subject element with one subelement) the attributes should be recorded on the subelement level.

A. With topic subelement:

<subject>
<topic authority="lcsh" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85075538">Learning disabilities</topic>
</subject>
<subject>
<topic authority="ericd"
>
Career Exploration</topic>
</subject>
<subject>
</subject>
<subject>
<topic authority="aat" valueURI="http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300055299">vandalism</topic>
</subject>
<subject>
<topic authority="lcsh" authorityURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects"     valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh89000851">Kayaking</topic>
</subject>

B. With name subelement:

<subject>
< name type="personal" authority="naf" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79041870">
<namePart>Woolf, Virginia</namePart>
<namePart type="date">1882-1936</namePart>
</subject>

<subject>
< name type="personal" authority="naf">
<namePart>Garcia Lorca, Federico</namePart>
<namePart type="date">1898-1936</namePart>
</subject>

C. With geographic subelement:

<subject>
< geographic authority="naf">Unites States</geographic>
</subject>

D. With temporal subelement:

<subject>
<temporal>Geschichte 1066-1076</temporal>
</subject>

E. With titleInfo subelement:

<subject>
<titleInfo type="uniform" authority="naf">
<title>Missale Carnotense<title>
</titleInfo>
</subject>

2. Complex subject

Best practice:

When supplying authority, authorityURI or valueURI for complex subjects (subject element with multiple <subject> subelements) these attributes should be recorded on the <subject> element level only if they relate to the subject in its entirety. Otherwise record the attributes on the <subject> subelements to which they pertain.

A. Encoded as one string using double-dashes to separate subject parts. ValueURI for the entire string may be added if available:

<subject>
<topic authority="lcsh" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2008110442">Railroads--West (U.S.)--Maps</topic>
</subject>

B. Parsed into subelements:

Alternatively, the example above may be encoded as the following (an XSLT stylesheet may be used to generate hyphens in the string for display):

<subject authority="lcsh"valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2008110442 displayLabel="Railroads--West (U.S.)--Maps">
<topic authority="lcsh" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85110904"> Railroads</topic>
<geographic authority="lcsh" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85146140">West (U.S.)</geographic>
<genre valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh99001269">Maps</genre>
</subject>

In the following example, no value URI for the entire string exists. The URIs identify the separate entities reflected in the various subelements. The top level is not coded lcsh since the preferred label of the authority is used for Tippah County (Miss.) and therefore the subject element in its entirety is not following lcsh:

<subject>
<topic authority="lcsh" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85111739">Real property</topic>
<geographic authority="naf" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79138969"> Mississippi</geographic>
<geographic authority="naf" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n82104412">Tippah County (Miss.)</geographic>
<genre valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh99001269">Maps</genre>
</subject>

C. With geographic subelement:

<subject authority="lcsh">
<geographic>United States</geographic>
</subject>

D. With temporal subelement:

<subject>
<temporal encoding="iso8601">197505</temporal>
</subject>
<subject>
<temporal encoding="w3cdtf">1975-05-15</temporal>
</subject>
<subject>
<temporal encoding="w3cdtf" point="start">2001-09-11</temporal>
<temporal encoding="w3cdtf" point="end">2003-03-19</temporal>
</subject>

E. With titleInfo subelement

<subject>
<titleInfo type="uniform" authority="naf">
<title>Missale Carnotense</title>
</titleInfo>
</subject>

F. With name subelement and topical subdivision:

<subject>
<name type="personal" authority="naf">
<namePart>Sayers, Dorothy L. (Dorothy Leigh), 1893-1957</namePart>
<topic authority=lcsh authorityURI=http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh9900496">Characters</topic>
</name>
</subject>

G. With name subelement and genre subelement:

<subject authority="lcsh">
<name type="personal" authority="naf" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79071110">
<namePart>Edmondston, Catherine Devereux</namePart>
<namePart type="date">1823-1875</namePart>
</name>
<genre authority="lcsh" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh99001602">Diaries</genre>
</subject>

H. With topic subelement and geographic subelement:

<subject>
<topic authority="gnd" valueURI="http://d-nb.info/gnd/4451062-7">Transformation</topic>
<geographic authority="geonames" valueURI="http://www.geonames.org/1496745">Novosibirsk</geographic>
</subject>

I. With hierarchical geographic subelement:

<subject>
<hierarchicalGeographic>
<country>Canada</country>
<city>Vancouver</city>
</hierarchicalGeographic>
</subject>
<subject authority="tgn" valueURI="http://www.geonames.org/1496745">
<hierarchicalGeographic>
<country>United States</country>
<state>Mississippi</state>
<county>Harrison</county>
<city>Biloxi</city>
</hierarchicalGeographic>
</subject>
<subject>
<hierarchicalGeographic>
<country level="1">United Kingdom</country>
<country level="2">England</country>
<region>North West</region>
<county>Cumbria</county>
<area areaType="national park">Lake District</area>
</hierarchicalGeographic>
</subject>
<subject>
<hierarchicalGeographic>
<country>United States</country>
<state>Rhode Island</state>
<city>Providence</city>
<citySection citySectionType="neighborhood" level="1">East Side</area>
<citySection citySectionType="neighborhood" level="2">Blackstone</area>
</hierarchicalGeographic>
</subject>
<subject>
<hierarchicalGeographic>
<city>Washington</city>
<citySection citySectionType="neighborhood" level="1">Capitol Hill</area>
<citySection citySectionType="park" level="2">Lincoln Park</area>
</hierarchicalGeographic>
</subject>

J. With cartographic subelement:

<subject>
<cartographics>
<coordinates>E 72°--E 148°/N 13°--N 18°</coordinates>
<scale>1:22,000,000</scale>
<projection>Conic proj</projection>
</cartographics>
</subject>

With geographicCode subelement:

<subject authority="lcsh">
<geographic>United States</geographic>
<geographicCode authority="iso3166">us</geographicCode>
</subject>
<subject>
<geographicCode authority="marcgac">n-us-md</geographicCode>
</subject>
<subject>
<geographicCode authority="iso3166">us</geographicCode>
</subject>

K. With occcupation subelement:

<subject authority="aat">
<occupation>printmaker</occupation>
</subject>

L. With multiple subelements:

<subject>
<topic>Bluegrass music</topic>
<temporal>1971-1980</temporal>
</subject>
<subject>
<hierarchicalGeographic>
<territory authority="gacs" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/geographicAreas/i-bi">British Indian Ocean Territory</geographic>
</hierarchicalGeographic>
</subject>
<subject>
<cartographics>
<coordinates>6 00 S, 71 30 E</coordinates>
</cartographics>
</subject>
<subject authority="lctgm">
<topic>Educational facilities</topic>
<geographic>Washington (D.C.)</geographic>
<temporal>1890-1910</temporal>
</subject>
<subject authority="rvm" lang="fre">
<topic>Église catholique</topic>
<topic>Histoire</topic>
<temporal>20e siècle</temporal>
</subject>
<subject authority="lcsh" valueURI= "http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85069617
">
<topic authority="lcsh" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85069615
">
Japanese drama</topic>
<temporal authority="lcsh" valueURI="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh2002012465">Edo period, 1600-1868</temporal>
</subject>

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MAPPINGS

MARC Mapping (Bibliographic)

See MARC Mapping to MODS for the <subject> element.

Dublin Core Mapping

See MODS to Dublin Core Metadata Element Set Mapping.

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Last Updated: August 23, 2021